Presentation on theme: "COMPUTER TERMS PART 2. NETWORK When you have two or more computers connected to each other, you have a network. The purpose of a network is to enable."— Presentation transcript:
NETWORK When you have two or more computers connected to each other, you have a network. The purpose of a network is to enable the sharing of files and information between multiple systems. The Internet could be described as a global network of networks. Computer networks can be connected through cables, such as Ethernet cables or phone lines, or wirelessly, using wireless networking cards that send and receive data through the air.
BOT A bot (short for "robot") is an automated program that runs over the Internet. Some bots run automatically, while others only execute commands when they receive specific input. There are many different types of bots, but some common examples include web crawlers, chat room bots, and malicious bots. Chat bots were one of the first types of automated programs to be called "bots" and became popular in online chatrooms. These bots are scripts that look for certain text patterns submitted by chat room participants and respond with automated actions. For example, a chat bot might warn a user if his or language is inappropriate. While most bots are used for good purposes, some are considered malware, since they perform unwanted functions. For example, spambots capture email addresses from website contact forms, address books, and email programs, then add them to a spam mailing list.
HACKER While this term originally referred to a clever or expert programmer, it is now more commonly used to refer to someone who can gain unauthorized access to other computers. A hacker can "hack" his or her way through the security levels of a computer system or network. This can be as simple as figuring out somebody else's password or as complex as writing a custom program to break another computer's security software. Hackers are the reason software manufacturers release periodic "security updates" to their programs. While it is unlikely that the average person will get "hacked," some large businesses and organizations receive multiple hacking attempts a day.
FIREWALL A computer firewall limits the data that can pass through it and protects a networked server or client machine from damage by unauthorized users. Firewalls can be either hardware or software- based. A router is a good example of a hardware device that has a built-in firewall. Most routers can be configured to limit traffic from certain IP addresses or block requests based on other criteria. Software programs that monitor and restrict external access to a computer or network can also serve as firewalls. A network firewall only allows authorized traffic from the Internet to flow in and out of the network.
ROUTER This is a hardware device that routes data (hence the name) from a local area network (LAN) to another network connection. A router acts like a coin sorting machine, allowing only authorized machines to connect to other computer systems. Most routers also keep log files about the local network activity.
VIRUS Computer viruses are small programs or scripts that can negatively affect the health of your computer. These malicious little programs can create files, move files, erase files, consume your computer's memory, and cause your computer not to function correctly. Some viruses can copy themselves, attach themselves to programs, and travel across networks. In fact opening an infected e-mail attachment is the most common way to get a virus. We all know it's hard enough to get a computer to work well when it is healthy, let alone when it has been attacked by a virus. Therefore, it is better to prevent an attack than to try and cure it. There are many antivirus programs available that scan incoming files for viruses before they can cause damage to your computer.
ANTIVIRUS Antivirus software is a type of utility used for scanning and removing viruses from your computer. Since new viruses are constantly being created by computer hackers, antivirus programs must keep an updated database of virus types. While antivirus software is primarily designed to protect computers against viruses, many antivirus programs now protect against other types of malware, such as spyware, adware, and rootkits as well.
SPAM “Spam" refers to junk e-mail or irrelevant postings to a newsgroup or bulletin board. The unsolicited e-mail messages you receive about refinancing your home, reversing aging, and losing those extra pounds are all considered to be spam. Spamming other people is definitely not cool and is one of the most notorious violations of Internet.
MALWARE Short for "malicious software," malware refers to software programs designed to damage or do other unwanted actions on a computer system. In Spanish, "mal" is a prefix that means "bad," making the term "badware," which is a good way to remember it (even if you're not Spanish). Common examples of malware include viruses, worms, trojan horses, and spyware. https://www.malwarebytes.org/ https://www.malwarebytes.org/ Is a program to use to scan for malware.
TROJAN https://www.malwarebytes.org/ https://www.malwarebytes.org/ Is a program to use to scan for malware. A Trojan horse, or Trojan, is a generally non-self-replicating type of malware program containing malicious code that, when executed, carries out actions determined by the nature of the Trojan, typically causing loss or theft of data, and possible system harm. Malicious programs are classified as Trojans if they do not attempt to inject themselves into other files (computer virus) or otherwise propagate themselves (worm)
WORM A computer worm is a standalone malware computer program that replicates itself in order to spread to other computers. Often, it uses a computer network to spread itself, relying on security failures. Unlike a computer virus, it does not need to attach itself to an existing program. Worms almost always cause at least some harm to the network, even if only by consuming bandwidth, whereas viruses almost always corrupt or modify files on a targeted computer. https://www.malwarebytes.org/ https://www.malwarebytes.org/ Is a program to use to scan for malware.
SPYWARE Spyware can capture information like Web browsing habits, e-mail messages, usernames and passwords, and credit card information. If left unchecked, the software can transmit this data to another person's computer over the Internet. So how does spyware get on your computer? Just like viruses, spyware can be installed when you open an e-mail attachment containing the malicious software. It can also be installed when you install another program that has a spyware installer attached to it. Because of the insidious nature of spyware, most people don't even know when spyware is on their computer. You can purchase anti-spyware that will search for spyware on your computer and stomp the unwanted software out of your system. A good way to prevent spyware from infecting your computer is to install a security program that lets you know when any program is being installed, so that you can choose to allow or stop the installation.
ADWARE Adware is free software that is supported by advertisements. Common adware programs are toolbars that sit on your desktop or work in your Web browser. They include features like advanced searching of the Web or your hard drive and better organization of your bookmarks and shortcuts. They are free to use, but require you to watch advertisements as long as the programs are open. Most adware is safe to use, but some can serve as spyware, gathering information about you from your hard drive, the Web sites you visit, or your keystrokes. Spyware programs can then send the information over the Internet to another computer. So be careful what adware you install on your computer. Make sure it is from a reputable company and read the privacy agreement that comes with it.
ROOTKIT A rootkit is a software program designed to provide a user with administrator access to a computer without being detected. Rootkits are considered one of the most serious types of malware since they may be used to gain unauthorized access to remote systems and perform malicious operations. The name "rootkit" includes the word "root," because the goal of a rootkit is to gain root access to a computer. By logging in as the root user of a system, a hacker can perform nearly any operation he or she wishes. Fortunately, most operating systems and software programs are designed to prevent unauthorized access via rootkits or other malware. Therefore, it is difficult to use a rootkit to gain access to modern systems. However, rootkits are constantly modified and updated in order to try and breach security holes.
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