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Pili and fimbriae Flagella The bacterial endospore

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1 Pili and fimbriae Flagella The bacterial endospore
Chapter 1 The structure and function of prokaryotes Special structure Pili and fimbriae Flagella The bacterial endospore

2 Pili and fimbriae G-, short, fine, hairlike appendages
that are not involved in motility. Fimbriae/fimbria:1000piece/cell, adhesion to host epithelium Sex pili/pilus: 1-10piece/cell, sexual conjugation, they are genetically determined by sex factors or conjugative plasmids and are required for bacterial mating. Receptors of some bacterial viruses.

3 Fimbriae and Pilli

4 FLAGELLA Some bacteria are motile Locomotory organelles- flagella
Taste environment Respond to food/poison chemotaxis

5 Flagella embedded in cell membrane project as strand Flagellin (protein) subunits move cell by propeller like action

6 The majority of motile prokaryotes move by means of flagella

7 Flagellar Arrangements
Peritrichous Polar/monotrichous Lophotrichous Amphitrichous

8 Flagellar ultrastructure
Filament: from cell surface to the tip Basal body: embedded in the cell Hook: link the filament to its basal body Basal body: G+: S (peptidoglycan), M(plasma membrane) G-: L (out membrane), P (peptidoglycan layer), S-M(contact the plasma membrane) The E. coli Flagellar Structure

9 The mechanism of flagellar movement
Rotatal movement counterclockwiae: forward on clockwise: tumble

10 Bacteria-bound experiment
cell flagella antibody Glass lide

11 Bacterial Behavior Chemotaxis, Phototaxis, and Other Taxes
Prokaryotes encounter gradients of physical and chemical agents in nature, and the motility machinery in the cell is designed to respond in a positive or negative way to these gradients by directing the movement of the cell either toward or away from the signal molecule, respectively. Such directed movements are called TAXES. Chemotaxis: a response to chemicals. Phototaxis: a response to light.

12 Chemotaxis in Bacteria
Chemotaxis is the movement of an organism toward (an attractant) or away from (a repellent) a chemical.

13 The Chemotaxis Process
(a) In the absence of a chemical attractant the cell swims randomly in runs, changing direction during tumbles. (b) In the presence of an attractant runs become biased, and the cell moves up the gradient of the attractant.

14 Mechanism of Chemotaxis
MCPs: methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins

15 Phototaxis Accumulation of the phototrophic bacterium at light wavelengths at which its pigments absorb. Phototaxis of an entire colony toward the light source on the right.

16 How to judge wether a cell have flagella
1. Light Microscope by staining 2. Electron microscope 3. Feature of colony 4. Culture in semi-solid medium

17 The bacterial endospore
A number of G+ bacteria can form a special resistent, dorment structure, be resistant to enviroment stresses such as heat, ultraviolet radiation, gamma radiation, chemical disinfectants, and desiccation. 1.Sterilize 2.Spore formation

18 Morphology of Endospores (芽孢/胞)
C A B Taxomony-relative

19 Endospore Structure Mature free endospore

20 The endospore exosporium coat outer membrane Inner membrane cortex

21 Spore formation: lack of nutrients. 7 stages

22 B A. Life Cycle of endospore B. Formation of endospore in Bacillus megaterium A

23 The mechnism of heat and other kethal agents resistantance
Calcium dipicolinic acid Heat stable enzyme High G+C% Less water Amino acid containing surfur(cys)


25 Spore germination 1. Activation – Usually results from treatments like heating. 2. Germination – Breaks spore’s dormant state. This process is characterized by spore swelling, loss of resistance to heat and other stresses, loss of refractility and increase in metabolic activity. 3. Outgrowth – The spore protoplast makes new components and develops once more into an active bacterium.

26 Paraspore crystal as biopesticide

27 Parasporal Crystal (Spore-companioned crystal) Toxic crystals Several Bacillus species, most notably B.popilliae and B. thuringiensis, produce intracellular crystals of toxic glycoproteins when they sporulate.

28 What we have learned so far?
what is Pili and fimbriae? Their function? What is Flagella? Its Arrangements, ultrastructure? The mechanism of flagellar movement Describe the structure and function of a bacterial flagellum. • What is the energy source for the flagellum? Bacteria-bound experiment? Chemotaxis, Phototaxis? How to judge wether a cell have flagella? What is endospore? Its structure, signifance. Spore formation, Life Cycle. The mechnism of heat and other kethal agents resistantance? What is paraspore crystal? Its signifance?

29 Summary 1, Prokaryotic genetic material is located in an area called the nucleoid and is not enclosed by a membrane. 2, Most bacteria have a cell wall outside the plasma membrane to give them shape and protect them from osmotic lysis. Bacterial walls are chemically complex and usually contain peptidoglycan or murein.

30 3, Bacteria often are classfied as either gram positive or gram negative based on differences in cell wall structure and their response to Gram staining. Gram-positive walls have thick,homogeneous layers of peptidoglycan and teichoid acid. Gram-negative bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan layer surrounded by a complex outer membrane containing lipopolysaccharides and other components

31 4, Some bacteria are motile, usually by means of flagella, and bacterial species differ in the number and distribution of their flagella. 5, Structures such as capsules, fimbriae, and sex pili are found outside of some bacterial cell wall. 6, Some bacteria survive adverse environmental conditions by forming endospores, dormant structures resistant to heat,desiccation and many chemicals

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