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Savings and Investing

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Key Terms Saving Investing Deposit Withdrawal Interest Interest rate Account balance Compounding of interest Future value Present value Discount factor Rule of 72

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Savings Accounts Definition Goal The process of setting money aside for a future date instead of spending it Provide funds for emergencies Short-term goals Investments Pay yourself first 10%

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Investing The process of setting money aside to increase wealth over time and accumulate funds for long-term financial goals such as retirement

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Savings Accounts Provides you with a secure place to store your cash while earning a little something extra call interest. Interest is money paid to you by the bank for being able to use your money (+) Deposit put in money into your savings account (+) Withdrawal take out money from your savings account (-) Accounts at banks are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). This insurance is for up to $100,000 per depositor per bank.

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Compare and contrast 3 savings accounts Name of bank? Is there a student savings account? Is there a minimum balance required? Is a debit card included? What is the minimum age to start an account? What is the address of the closest branch to your house? Would you use this bank? Why?

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Types of Savings accounts passbook account Depositor receives a booklet in which deposits, withdrawals, and interest are recorded. Average interest rate is lower at banks and savings and loans than at credit unions. Funds are easily accessible. statement account Basically the same as a passbook account, except depositor receives monthly statements instead of a passbook. Accounts are usually accessible through 24-hour automated teller machines (ATMs). Interest rates are the same as passbook account. Funds are easily accessible. interest-earning checking account Combines benefits of checking and savings. Depositor earns interest on any unused money in his/her account.

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Money Market Accounts what they are and how they work Checking/savings account. Interest rate paid built on a complex structure that varies with size of balance and current level of market interest rates. Can access your money from an ATM, a teller, or by writing up to three-six checks a month. benefits Immediate access to your money. (liquidity) trade-offs Usually requires a minimum balance of $1,000 to $2,500. Limited number of checks can be written each month. Average yield (rate of return) higher than regular savings accounts.

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Certificates of Deposit what they are and how they work Bank pays a fixed amount of interest for a fixed amount of money during a fixed amount of time. benefits No risk Simple No fees Offers higher interest rates than savings accounts. trade-offs Restricted access to your money Withdrawal penalty if cashed before expiration date (penalty might be higher than the interest earned)

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Types of Certificates of Deposit 1. Rising-rate CDs with higher rates at various intervals, such as every six months. 2. Stock-indexed CDs with earnings based on the stock market. 3. Callable CDs with higher rates and long- term maturities, as high as 10–15 years. However, the bank may “call” the account after a stipulated period, such as one or two years, if interest rates drop. 4. Global CDs combine higher interest with a hedge on future changes in the dollar compared to other currencies. 5. Prombotional CDs attempt to attract savers with gifts or special rates.

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Choosing a savings account factors that determine the dollar yield on an account: Interest rate (also called rate of return, or annual yield) All money earned comes from this factor. the following factors reduce money earned and can even turn it into a loss: Fees, charges, and penalties Usually based on minimum balance requirements, or transaction fees. Balance requirements Some accounts require a certain balance before paying any interest. On money-market accounts, most banks will pay different interest rates for different size balances. (Higher balance earns a higher rate.) Balance calculation method Most calculate daily. Some use average of all daily balances.

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Interest Payments Interest rate is the percentage you are paid for your money and can vary from month to month Account balance is the total amount of money that is in the account at a given point in time.

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Pay yourself first (a little can add up) A little can add up! Save this each week … at % interest … in 10 years you’ll have $7.005%$4,720 14.00 5% $9,440 21.00 5% $14,160 28.00 5% $18,880 35.00 5% $23,600 You can buy … two fast food meals or one movie ticket (and a candy bar) or save $7.00 this week. You can buy … two small cheese pizzas or one large pepperoni pizza, delivered or one new CD or save $14.00 this week. What can you give up to save for your financial goals?

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Simple Interest Interest = Principal (P) x Rate (R) x Time (T Dollar Amount x Interest rate x Length of Time (in years) = Amount Earned example If you had $100 in a savings account that paid 6% simple interest, during the first year you would earn $6 in interest. $100 x 0.06 x 1 = $6 At the end of two years you would have earned $12. The account would continue to grow at a rate of $6 per year, despite the accumulated interest.

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Compound interest Interest is paid on original amount of deposit, plus any interest earned. (Original $ Amount + Earned Interest) x Interest Rate x Length of Time = Amount Earned example If you had $100 in a savings account that paid 6% interest compounded annually, the first year you would earn $6.36 in interest. $100 x 0.06 x 1 = $6 $100 + $6 = $106 With compound interest, the second year you would earn $6.36 in interest. The calculation the second year would look like this: $106 x 0.06 x 1 = $6.36 $106 + 6.36 = $112.36

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.Why do interest payments increase over time?.How long do you think it takes to double your money over time?

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Future Value, Present Value and Discount Factor

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Future Value How much a set amount of money will be worth in the future Go back to the spreadsheet showing what happens to your initial $1,000 savings account investment. The calculations show that the one-year future value is $1,030.42, the two-year future value is $1,061.76, and the three-year future value is $1,094.05.

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Present Value The value of money right now In our example $1000

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Discount Factor The amount of $1 in the future is worth today

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The Rule of 72 How many years will it take to double my money? 72 DIVIDED BY = YEARS TO DOUBLE A SUM OF MONEY INTEREST RATE At what interest rate will my money double in a set number of years? 72 DIVIDED BY = INTEREST RATE REQUIRED YEARS TO DOUBLE INVESTMENT

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