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Materials and Processes SME Initiative Materials and Processes Division ESA/ESTEC/TOS-QM Mve/qmc 1 Space Environment Effects : Manned Volumes.

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Presentation on theme: "Materials and Processes SME Initiative Materials and Processes Division ESA/ESTEC/TOS-QM Mve/qmc 1 Space Environment Effects : Manned Volumes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Materials and Processes SME Initiative Materials and Processes Division ESA/ESTEC/TOS-QM Mve/qmc 1 Space Environment Effects : Manned Volumes

2 Materials and Processes SME Initiative Materials and Processes Division ESA/ESTEC/TOS-QM Mve/qmc 2 Offgassing

3 Materials and Processes SME Initiative Materials and Processes Division ESA/ESTEC/TOS-QM Mve/qmc 3 ECSS-Q-70-29 (former ESA PSS-01-729) : The determination of offgassing products from materials and assembled articles to be used in a manned space vehicle crew compartment Purpose: Determine the identity and quantity of volatile offgassed products from materials and assembled articles. Material screening test Quantity of Carbon Monoxide [ g/g] Quantity of total organics (pentane equivalent) [mg/g] Identification of contaminants in excess of 10 mg/g of material General test for materials/assembled articles Identification and quantification of all contaminants present Use of T-values for acceptance Offgassing test (1)

4 Materials and Processes SME Initiative Materials and Processes Division ESA/ESTEC/TOS-QM Mve/qmc 4 Offgassing test (2) Acceptance Limits Screening test –Carbon Monoxide : <25 mg/g material –Total Organics : <100 mg/g material General test –No definitive acceptability defined by this test. Data are evaluated by the Safety Office of the relevant project for assessment of toxic hazard due to volatile contamination evolved from the item under test for assessment of the impacts on the potential toxicity of the total quantity of offgassed products from all contaminant generating items for a given mission

5 Materials and Processes SME Initiative Materials and Processes Division ESA/ESTEC/TOS-QM Mve/qmc 5 Offgassing test (3) –Following primary acceptance criteria are relevant: –The quantity of each individual offgassed product shall result in a predicted Spacecraft concentration below the SMAC value –Toxic Hazard Index (T) shall not exceed 0.5. T is determined by calculating the ratio of the projected concentration of each offgassed product to its SMAC value and summing up these ratios for all offgassed products T = C 1 /SMAC 1 + C 2 /SMAC2..... + C n /SMAC n

6 Materials and Processes SME Initiative Materials and Processes Division ESA/ESTEC/TOS-QM Mve/qmc 6 General test conditions Temperature 50 C Atmosphere : synthetic air or clean/dry air Pressure : 1 Atmosphere at 50 C Duration : 72 hrs Mass (material) 5g/liter test volume Sampling : +/- 250 ml gas on trap after max. 12 hrs recovery to reach RT; flow rate sampling is +/- 25 ml/min. Offgassing test Procedure (1)

7 Materials and Processes SME Initiative Materials and Processes Division ESA/ESTEC/TOS-QM Mve/qmc 7 Test chambers Different facilities are available e.g.: Heraeus ovens 128 and 718 liters Glass bottles 1, 2.5 and 5 liters Analyses: Screening: TO/CO GC with Methaniser and Flame Ionisation Detector General test Pre-concentrated sampling Desorption system : Model MW-1A from Rektorik (CH) GC with DB5MS from JW column (60m, diam 0.25mm, film 0.25 m) Mass spectrometer model Profile from Kratos (UK) Offgassing test Procedure (2)

8 Materials and Processes SME Initiative Materials and Processes Division ESA/ESTEC/TOS-QM Mve/qmc 8 Offgassing test Procedure (3) Screening test

9 Materials and Processes SME Initiative Materials and Processes Division ESA/ESTEC/TOS-QM Mve/qmc 9 Offgassing test Procedure (4)

10 Materials and Processes SME Initiative Materials and Processes Division ESA/ESTEC/TOS-QM Mve/qmc 10 Odour Test NASA-STD-6001 (former NHB 8060.1C) Purpose Determine if the odour is objectionable or revolting Odour of a material or assembled article is objectionable or revolting if an average of 2.5 or higher on an odour characteristic scale is obtained (0:undetectable, 1:Barely detectable, 2: Easely detectable, 3: objectionable,4: revolting). Sample preparation is the same as for Offgassing test Test panel shall consist of 5 qualified persons

11 Materials and Processes SME Initiative Materials and Processes Division ESA/ESTEC/TOS-QM Mve/qmc 11 Flammability

12 Materials and Processes SME Initiative Materials and Processes Division ESA/ESTEC/TOS-QM Mve/qmc 12 Identify flammable materials used, their amounts, thickness, exposed surface, exposure environment Identify propagation paths for exposed materials (including housing) If configuration is container, evaluate its capability to contain an internal fire If unacceptable configuration through the configuration assessment, there are two options: Use fire break concepts to reduce flammability hazard by isolating the flammable materials Conduct a test to show acceptability of configuration Flammability configuration assessment (1)

13 Materials and Processes SME Initiative Materials and Processes Division ESA/ESTEC/TOS-QM Mve/qmc 13 Flammability configuration assessment (2)

14 Materials and Processes SME Initiative Materials and Processes Division ESA/ESTEC/TOS-QM Mve/qmc 14 Limitation of flammable materials by replacement with a non flammable one Restriction of propagation paths through Covering of flammable materials with a non flammable one Separation of flammable materials (avoid propagation) How to reduce flammability hazards

15 Materials and Processes SME Initiative Materials and Processes Division ESA/ESTEC/TOS-QM Mve/qmc 15 Upwards Propagation Test (1) ECSS-Q-70-21 (Former ESA PSS-01-721) : Flammability testing for the screening of space materials Purpose : Determine if a material, when exposed to a standard ignition source, will self-extinguish and not transfer burning debris, which can ignite adjacent materials Test criteria : Self extinguishing within 15 cm No transfer of burning debris Burn Propagation time Sample dimensions : 300 x 64 mm, worst case thickness Test atmosphere : depends on application (24% O 2 or more…)

16 Materials and Processes SME Initiative Materials and Processes Division ESA/ESTEC/TOS-QM Mve/qmc 16 Upwards Propagation Test (2)

17 Materials and Processes SME Initiative Materials and Processes Division ESA/ESTEC/TOS-QM Mve/qmc 17 Upwards Propagation Test (3)

18 Materials and Processes SME Initiative Materials and Processes Division ESA/ESTEC/TOS-QM Mve/qmc 18 Upwards Propagation Test (4)

19 Materials and Processes SME Initiative Materials and Processes Division ESA/ESTEC/TOS-QM Mve/qmc 19 Wire Flammability test (1) ECSS-Q-70-21 (Former ESA PSS-01-721) : Flammability testing for the screening of space materials Purpose : Determine if a wire insulation system, when exposed to an external ignition source, will self-extinguish and not transfer burning debris, which can ignite adjacent materials Acceptance criteria Prior to flame application, while heating wire to maximal operation T, no spontaneous combustion, splitting insulation nor baring conductor During ignition and combustion no flaming droplets/particles After burner is extinguished, cease flaming within 10 s and within a total burn length of 150 mm Sample dimensions : 5 x 1m Test atmosphere : depend on application (20% O 2 or more…)

20 Materials and Processes SME Initiative Materials and Processes Division ESA/ESTEC/TOS-QM Mve/qmc 20 Wire Flammability test (2)

21 Materials and Processes SME Initiative Materials and Processes Division ESA/ESTEC/TOS-QM Mve/qmc 21 Wire Flammability test (3)


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