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Processor Types And Instruction Sets Barak Perelman CS147 Prof. Lee.

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Presentation on theme: "Processor Types And Instruction Sets Barak Perelman CS147 Prof. Lee."— Presentation transcript:

1 Processor Types And Instruction Sets Barak Perelman CS147 Prof. Lee

2 ISA Instruction Set Architecture All programmer accessible hardware & instructions for that hardware

3 System as Whole CPU (Central Processing unit) interaction with main memory (its internal memory) Input & Output

4 System Bus CPU connected with main memory & I/O via System Bus CPU – generates addresses placed on Address bus Memory – receives addresses from Address bus THIS PROCESS NEVER REVERSED

5 CPU & Memory Since CPU executes instructions, and all instructions/data stored in Memory. Instructions/data must be loaded to CPU registers, and results stored back in Memory.

6 A Bit about Memory (no pun intended) Memory is a collection of consecutive cells = 1 byte (8 bits) Each cell has address/memory location Group of cells = WORD usually 4 Bytes Convention: WORD accessed by referencing byte with lowest byte Computers memory is an “array” of bytes

7 CPU – 2 Sections 1. Data Section – Registers & ALU 2. Control Section – interprets instructions and controls register transfers – executes instructions stored in main memory

8 Interface between Data and Control Units Register 1: Program Counter (PC) or IP (“Instruction Pointer” in IA) – address of instruction executed Register 2: Instruction register (IR) – fetched instruction (PC pointed) stored in IR and interpreted

9 FETCH-EXECUTE CYCLE 1.Fetch next instruc. To be exec. from memory 2.Decode operation code 3.Read operand(s) from main memory if any 4.Exec. Instruc. and store results if any 5.Go step 1

10 Control unit & Data unit (datapath) again… Control unit – decodes instruction after fetch, and performs specific action. Coordinates this in execution of program. Datapath – Collection of registers (register file), arithmetic and logic unit, and other registers.

11 Datapath - > Register file Register file – used like temporary “memory” during computation. Can be many register files (depend on CPU). Each has own address (in sequence, like main memory, but with much smaller addresses –ex: 32 register file uses 5-bit address’). Register file in CPU (much faster than system memory: ~10X’s-100X’s)

12 ALU Implements variety binary (2-operand) and unary (one-operand) operations (ex: add, and, not, or, multiply)

13 The Process Control Unit selects operands+operations according to executable instruction The two source operands fetched from register file onto Register Source Buses to ALU Output from ALU goes on Register Destination Bus, back to register file Most systems include System Bus in this process (access memory and devices)

14 Instruction Set Collection of instructions that a processor can execute <-therefore defining the processor

15 3 Types of Instructions 1.Data – move data between CPU and memory or I/O 2.Arithmetic (logic) – arithmetic + logic operations on data 3.Control – transfer control from one section to another

16 Problems Incompatibility of instruction sets Solutions Higher-level languages recompiled for target processor

17 Exception JAVA byte code actual machine language for virtual machine. Therefore will run on any processor running JVM (Java Virtual Machine)

18 CPU types IBM PC (or compatible) use instruction set 80x86 CPU (where ‘x’ replaced w/digit of version. Example: 80586 aka Pentium processor) (*also need to consider differences in in operating systems and I/O) Sun Microsystem SPARC Motorola

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