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SME initiative jg/qmc 1 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM CONTAMINATION CONTROL SME-Course D : Materials Materials and Processes Division.

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Presentation on theme: "SME initiative jg/qmc 1 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM CONTAMINATION CONTROL SME-Course D : Materials Materials and Processes Division."— Presentation transcript:

1 SME initiative jg/qmc 1 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM CONTAMINATION CONTROL SME-Course D : Materials Materials and Processes Division Materials Physics and Chemistry Section Jaco M. Guyt TOS-QMC –Topics 1Types of contamination 2Cleaning procedures 3Prevention

2 SME initiative jg/qmc 2 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Introduction Why contamination control ? –Satellites are operational in orbit - no maintenance after launch –Sophisticated equipment with higher demands on performance –Increased mission duration –Increased reliability is needed

3 SME initiative jg/qmc 3 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Part 1 Types of contamination –Introduction –Origin of Contaminants –Requirements –Verification of requirements –Handling of contamination problems

4 SME initiative jg/qmc 4 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Introduction Definition –Any foreign matter –Unwanted deposition on surfaces. Contamination effects –On thermal control surfaces - changes and ratios –On solar arrays - decrease on power output –On optical instruments - decrease signal / scattering –In waveguides - Multipaction

5 SME initiative jg/qmc 5 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Types of contamination Organic and Inorganic contamination coming from Humans- Skin, handling greases/salts, hair, cosmetics Clothing- Fibres, dust collected in clothing Materials- Outgassing, solvent extraction, creeping(oil greases), direct contact, degradation Vacuum test- Pump oils, chamber history, turbulence at start, venting (lines and gas quality) Machining- Drilling, abrasion, polishing, cleaning Transport- Packaging, pressure drop in plane Space- Pyro-valves, wire cutters, thrusters Exposure C. R.- Working activities, soldering, air circulation

6 SME initiative jg/qmc 6 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Requirements Inorganic / Particulate contamination –Airborne ISO (1999) – superseded FED-Std-209) Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments PSS / ECSS Q Cleanliness and Contamination control –Surface contamination IEST-Std-CC1246D - Product Cleanliness levels and Contamination control program superseded Mil-Std-1246C PSS / ECSS Q-70-01

7 SME initiative jg/qmc 7 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Requirements

8 SME initiative jg/qmc 8 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Requirements Fed-Std-209E

9 SME initiative jg/qmc 9 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Requirements ISO-14644_1

10 SME initiative jg/qmc 10 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Requirements ISO-14644_1

11 SME initiative jg/qmc 11 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Requirements Mil-Std-1246C

12 SME initiative jg/qmc 12 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Requirements Mil-Std-1246C

13 SME initiative jg/qmc 13 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Requirements Mil-Std-1246C

14 SME initiative jg/qmc 14 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Requirements IEST-STD-CC1246D

15 SME initiative jg/qmc 15 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Requirements IEST-STD-CC1246D

16 SME initiative jg/qmc 16 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Requirements Organic Contamination –PSS / ECSS Q exposure in clean room during a continuous period of one week, less than 2.0x10 -7 g/cm 2 Exposure in vacuum chamber after a blank test of 24 hours, less than 1.0x10 -7 g/cm 2 Project depending, more stringent levels. –ECSS Q-70-02A Outgassing requirements of materials. –IEST-Std-CC1246D Level AA5 up to level J, what is 10 ng till 25 mg per 0.1m 2

17 SME initiative jg/qmc 17 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Requirements Mil-Std-1246C

18 SME initiative jg/qmc 18 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Requirements IEST-STD-CC1246D

19 SME initiative jg/qmc 19 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Verification of requirements Organic Contamination –Visual inspection - levels unto g/cm 2 range –ECSS-Q (old PSS ) Thermal vacuum outgassing test for the screening of space materials –PSS (ECSS-Q-70-05) The detection of organic contamination of surfaces by infrared spectroscopy –ASTM E1235 Gravimetric Determination of Nonvolatile Residue (NVR) in Environmentally Controlled Areas for Spacecraft –ESTEC work instructions : contact and immersion test

20 SME initiative jg/qmc 20 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Verification of requirements Micro VCM

21 SME initiative jg/qmc 21 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Verification of requirements Micro VCM

22 SME initiative jg/qmc 22 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Verification of requirements Micro VCM

23 SME initiative jg/qmc 23 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Verification of requirements Acceptance limits PSS :TML < 1.0%, CVCM < 0.1% Acceptance limits ECSS-Q-70-02A : RML < 1.0%, CVCM < 0.1% Micro VCM results TMLRMLCVCMWVRRemarks A -1.12%0.05%0.01%1.07%Too high water B -0.56%0.45%0.23%0.11%Too high CVCM C -2.15%1.01%0.09%1.14%Too high TML/RML D -9.52%9.50%6.17%0.02%Too high RML/CVCM

24 SME initiative jg/qmc 24 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Verification of requirements PSS (ECSS-Q-70-05) The detection of organic contamination of surfaces by infrared spectroscopy –Identification due to specific absorption of the molecule due to vibrations and rotations of atoms –Quantification by Lambert/Beers Law relation Abs. = E * b * C E = Molar Absorption Coefficient b = Pathlength C = Concentration –Calibration curves for four standards Paraffin, Di-octylPhthalate ester, Methylsilicone and MethylPhenylsilicone Concentration Abs. Absorption of sample Concentration of sample

25 SME initiative jg/qmc 25 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Verification of requirements

26 SME initiative jg/qmc 26 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Verification of requirements

27 SME initiative jg/qmc 27 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Verification of requirements

28 SME initiative jg/qmc 28 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Verification of requirements Sampling for infrared analysis –Indirect by rinsing surface with solvent and analyse of NVR –Indirect by wiping surface with tissue and analyse of NVR –Direct by using infrared transparent windows ZnSe, CaF2

29 SME initiative jg/qmc 29 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Verification of requirements Particulate Contamination –Airborne Counters - Fed Std 209E –Surface contamination Visual inspection, less than 300 ppm ECSS-Q-70-50, Particle Fall Out measurement ASTM E1216, Tape lift method ASTM F312, Counting and sizing particles ASTM F311, Liquid samples

30 SME initiative jg/qmc 30 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Verification of requirements PFO - meter

31 SME initiative jg/qmc 31 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Verification of requirements Particulate Contamination –PFO meter and correlation with cleanliness specifications table

32 SME initiative jg/qmc 32 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Verification of requirements Tape lift method as performed at ESTEC Define area which needs to be checked Take Polyethylene transparent tape from 3M Scotch 480 Stick it on a surface of at least 5 x 5 cm Take with tweezers the 0.45 micron filter paper with grid Apply the filter paper against the just released tape Cut excessive tape away Count particles by Microscope in different size ranges

33 SME initiative jg/qmc 33 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Handling of contamination problems Define problem and location –Define starting point of problem –Write Non Conformance Report (NCR) –Identification of contamination by analysis –Search for possible sources on location Detailed Material Lists –Excluding by analysis / search / calculation

34 SME initiative jg/qmc 34 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Handling of contamination problems Can the problem be solved? Can we live with it? Will it happen again? Can we avoid the risk by preventive actions or adjusting procedures?

35 SME initiative jg/qmc 35 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Part 2 Cleaning Procedures Introduction Selection of Cleaning method Verification of cleaning efficiency Cleaning procedure

36 SME initiative jg/qmc 36 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Introduction Definition of clean –A contamination level below the acceptance limits or not detectable with the used method. Procedure for cleaning is needed for –Customer - that you are cleaning and how –Personnel - that they know how to clean and what –Sub-contractor - that they know how and what are the requirements

37 SME initiative jg/qmc 37 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Selection of Cleaning method Selection should be based on : –Method compatibility with hardware ultrasonic, temperature, mechanical scratching –Method efficiency with hardware accessibility design –Solvent compatibility with hardware corrosion, chemical attack, dissolving, removable –Solvent efficiency for contaminant what are you removing, polar/non-polar

38 SME initiative jg/qmc 38 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Cleaning methods Mechanical cleaning - grinding, brushing, blasting Detergent cleaning or soap cleaning Solvent bath / ultrasonic Chemical cleaning - acids, alkalines and salts Vacuum bake out Vacuum cleaner / ionised air Plasma cleaning Dry ice Polymer film Adhesive

39 SME initiative jg/qmc 39 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Verification of cleaning efficiency By representative test samples and checked visually or by analysis Visual inspection after cleaning Check of hardware by taking samples, followed by analysis Check performance of hardware and verify against previous tests

40 SME initiative jg/qmc 40 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Cleaning procedure Should contain description or information about –Hardware –Method, with details about e.g. solvents/duration and flow chart –Restrictions or hazards for hardware or personnel –Requirements –Verification of requirements –Inspection after cleaning –Operators (trained) –Logbook entry

41 SME initiative jg/qmc 41 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Part 3 Prevention Introduction Material selection Garment Potential risks Preventive actions Contamination control plan

42 SME initiative jg/qmc 42 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Introduction Prevention is better and cheaper then the cure!! Think ahead. If you are not sure it will contaminate the hardware? Stop the activity! Because the answer is yes. If something can go wrong, it will go wrong. Working towards a dead-line is where prevention looses its power.

43 SME initiative jg/qmc 43 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Material selection Outgassing characteristics –low TML and CVCM –Mass of used material –Location Optical applications Cryogenic High Temperature –Long term predictions with VBQC

44 SME initiative jg/qmc 44 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM VBQC

45 SME initiative jg/qmc 45 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM VBQC

46 SME initiative jg/qmc 46 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM VBQC

47 SME initiative jg/qmc 47 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM VBQC Results taken out of the Mathematical treatment consist of Accelaration factor, Activation energy, Residence time - Temperature dependency. Long term predictions with VBQC data is used within the temperature range of test. The TML or CVCM data are fitted period by period with a sum of 6 exponential equations. With W 0.i the variables, affected with the time constant 0,i, which are 50, 20, 5, 1, 0.5 and 0.1 hour.

48 SME initiative jg/qmc 48 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Garment As humans are the main source of contamination, garment should be taken into account from the beginning of the project. Depending of the contamination budget allocated to a specific operation, selection of garment can be done Storage of garment should be separate from street clothing Procedure of dressing should be trained to the personnel Regular cleaning of garment by specialised company / quality check

49 SME initiative jg/qmc 49 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM Potential risks Potential risksPreventive actions Thermal vacuum testsCheck procedure –Pumping oilsBlank test –Outgassing of materialsCheck DML –Solar radiation Adequate thermal protection Clean room operationsTraining of personnel –Too many personnel in C.R.Entry form –Unauthorised entry in C.R.Access code for CR / locked –Maintenance in C.R.Check impact, protect items –Violation of dress codeClear signs on doors,training –Dirty activity during AITSeparate from sensitive item

50 SME initiative jg/qmc 50 Materials and Processes Division ESA-ESTEC TOS/QM CONTAMINATION CONTROL PLAN Contamination control plan –Preventive –All requirements are mentioned –Procedures for delicate handling or testing


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