Presentation on theme: "Questionnaire Designing Developing the best instrument to collect data for your research."— Presentation transcript:
Questionnaire Designing Developing the best instrument to collect data for your research
Steps in research project Finalize the method of research Set schedule Determine population and sample Design and pre-test the questionnaire Training of interviewers Implementation of survey Compile and computerize data Data analysis and final report
What is a questionnaire? A questionnaire is an instrument that is used for collecting information (data), which is later analyzed and summarized to answer your research question A questionnaire is the most important part of the research project. Remember: Garbage in – garbage out!
Types of information collected Descriptions about the respondent and their background (demographics) Behaviors and habits (e.g., smoking, diet, exercise) Preferences or opinions Medical data (e.g., height, weight, FBG, blood pressure, etc.) Social data (e.g., grades in exams)
Categories of questionnaires By method of data collection: –Self-administered –Interview schedules –Data extraction forms By type of data to be collected: –Quantitative data (numbers, categories) –Qualitative data (opinions, beliefs)
Common types of questionnaires Household interview schedules: –Census –Demographic surveys Individual interview schedules KAP questionnaires In-depth interviews
Commonly used terms Interview and Interviewer Respondent (interviewee) Informed consent and confidentiality Codes, coding (answer categories) –Other (specify) No answer/missing information Pre-testing Internal consistency
Types of questions Respondent identification Demographic information Pre-coded questions Open-ended questions Best-choice questions True/false questions
Biases in questionnaires Incomplete list of responses in a question Non-response bias, when a large number of respondents say “I don’t know” Response bias, when respondent tries to tailor his response to what he thinks the interviewer wants Wording - using leading statements Choices – may affect the response
Examples – objective What is your age? (Record age in completed years) –What was your age on your last birthday? How many children do you have? What is your occupation? (Specify) How many rooms are there in your house? Do you own this house? (Yes/No)
Examples – objective Mutually non-exclusive categories: What is your average monthly income? –Less than SR 10,000 –SR 10,000 to SR 20,000 –SR 20,000 to SR 30,000 –SR 30,000 or more
Examples – objective Mutually exclusive categories: What is your average monthly income? –Less than SR 10,000 –SR 10,000 to SR 19,999 –SR 20,000 to SR 29,999 –SR 30,000 or more
Examples – subjective Are you satisfied with the quality of services in this hospital? –Yes –No –Don’t Know/No Answer A majority of respondents would answer ‘Yes’ to this question. Why?
Examples – subjective What is your impression about the quality of services in this hospital? –I am fully satisfied –I am somewhat satisfied –I am not fully satisfied –I am not satisfied at all –Don’t Know/No Answer
Sensitive questions Age and income questions elicit private information: –What is your age? –What is your monthly income? To make them less sensitive, give a range: –What was your age on your last birthday? Less than 40 years 40 – 49 years 50 – 59 years 60 years and above
General tips for questions Questions should be short, clear, simple and logical Start with easy and less sensitive questions Gradually move to more difficult and sensitive questions Keep as few response categories as possible Always try to use pre-coded questions
General tips for interviews Greet the respondent Introduce yourself Explain the objective of the research Explain what questions will be asked Seek informed consent before starting Keep the interview short (max. 30 minutes) Thank the respondent at the end
Considering data entry Questionnaires must be designed with data entry and analysis steps in mind: –Pre-code the questions as much as possible –Follow a certain pattern in the format of the questionnaire (study the example questionnaire given): Sequencing of questions and sections “Skip” patterns Appropriate space to record the numbers (e.g., fasting blood glucose level, SBP / DBP)
Making an empty database Use SPSS, Epi-Info or other statistical software to make an empty database of your questionnaire As a pre-test, enter 5-10 questionnaire to identify and rectify potential problems in data entry.
Next steps in research projects Schedule meetings with your advisors (both Community Medicine and other) Develop a plan of your research project (who will do what and when) Design and pre-test your questionnaire Learn how to enter data in SPSS Learn how to do simple analysis in SPSS