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Am I seeing signs of dyslexia?

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Presentation on theme: "Am I seeing signs of dyslexia?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Am I seeing signs of dyslexia?
Diane E. Wood, C.A.L.T. Licensed Dyslexic Therapist Mansfield I.S.D. Mansfield, Texas



4 Dyslexia: Language Based Learning Differences
Weaknesses: Learning Letters & their sounds Decoding Words Reading Comprehension Written Expression Grammar/ Mechanics Spelling Rapid Word Retrieval Strengths: Verbal Communication Visual Arts Computer Science Design Drama Electronics Mathematics Mechanics Music and/or Sports


6 What is Dys-lex-ia? *Difficulties with:
*Neurobiological differences in the way the brain processes language *Difficulties with: Language Accurate and/or fluent word recognition Poor spelling Poor decoding abilities * Deficit in the phonological component of language unexpected in relation to cognitive abilities of the person, and the provision of effective classroom instruction has been provided

7 What does the research indicate?
Dyslexia is the result of a brain difference in the ‘wiring’ of the neural pathways & parts of the brain that are related to language functioning & reading. Difficulty in: Processing speech sounds within words, Making the connection between letter sounds & the written letters, Deficits in phonological awareness that appear in kindergarten are predictive of difficulties in learning to read. Instruction in phonemic awareness & reading skills that is intense, explicit, systematic, multisensory, & cumulative are considered to have an impact on helping to ‘rewire’ the dyslexic brain.



10 What do you see in the classroom? What does the parent notice?
*Poor decoding of individual words – word attack & word recognition skills *Slow, inaccurate oral reading *Spelling difficulties – poor encoding skills *Difficulties in written language *Short-term memory & sequencing difficulties *Difficulty producing homework in a reasonable time *Low self-esteem

11 Concerned a child may be dyslexic?
Collect the following information: Anecdotal notes recording classroom concerns, TPRI, DRA, running records, sight word list informal assessments, List of accommodations provided and the results on student’s performance, Samples of student work Parent conference notes, family history of dyslexia Academic data

12 Early Reading Intervention
Systematic and direct instruction in: Phonemic awareness – noticing, identifying, & manipulating the sounds of spoken language Phonics – how letters & letter groups represent the sound of Spoken language Sounding out words (decoding) Spelling Reading sight words Vocabulary and concepts Reading comprehension strategies

13 Early Reading Intervention cont.
Practice in applying these skills in reading and in writing Fluency training Enriched language experiences: Listening to… Talking about… Telling STORIES

14 Pre-School Signs of Dyslexia
May talk later than most children Difficulty with rhyming Difficulty pronouncing words Unable to recall the right word Trouble learning numbers, colors, shapes, how to spell/write his/her name

15 Common Signs of Dyslexia
Kindergarten – 2rd grade Grades 3-4 Phonic decoding is a struggle Inconsistent word recognition Difficulty reading math problems Over reliance on context and guessing Oral reading-choppy & labored Trouble segmenting & blending sounds Poor letter-sound recall Poor application of phonics Inconsistent memory for words in lists Mispronouncing words Inability to spell phonetically

16 Common Signs of Dyslexia
Grades 5-6 Grades 7-8 Inability to complete tests in a timely manner Reverts to manuscript from cursive Organization of writing is difficult Decodes laboriously, skips unknown words Avoids reading; therefore, vocabulary declines Slow reading, loses the meaning Persistent phonological weaknesses, less obvious Poor spelling & writing Confusions of similar words Does better with structured, explicit teaching of language

17 Common Signs of Dyslexia
History of reading & spelling difficulties Avoids reading aloud & for pleasure Oral reading is labored, not fluent Writing & spelling problems persist Trouble with foreign language study * Can cope when given extra time, study strategies & structured language teaching High School and Beyond

18 Reasons for difficulties
Poor development of phonological awareness (segmenting, blending, manipulating) Difficulty learning letter names/sounds Poor phonological memory Difficulty with rapid naming (recall of familiar objects, colors, etc.)

19 Difficulties lead to Poor word attack skills
Poor accuracy, fluency, and therefore, comprehension Poor writing skills due to lack of phonological understanding Dislike for reading; therefore, student does not read enough

20 Identification of Dyslexia
Poor performance in one or more areas of reading Unexpected for the student’s age Difficulty reading real words in isolation Difficulty accurately decoding nonsense words Slow, inaccurate/labored oral reading Difficulty with spelling Difficulty with the development of phonological awareness Difficulty with phonological memory Adequate intelligence


22 Myths about Dyslexia See backwards or reverse letters Will outgrow it
More boys than girls have dyslexia Colored lenses and overlays will cure it Left handedness predicted dyslexia Cannot diagnose dyslexia until after 1st grade What about reversals? Reversals are more frequent and persistent Reversals are not the cause of dyslexia

23 Classroom Accommodations
Extended time Lack of penalty for spelling errors on assignments that preclude editing Place emphasis on content & comprehension instead of the mechanics of reading, writing, spelling Follow 504 accommodation plan for the student

24 Create a Dyslexic Friendly Classroom
Positive environment where making a mistake is acceptable Flexible grouping Multisensory Instruction (visual, auditory & kinesthetic modalities) No dictation is required No reading aloud is demanded without first checking competency Learning ‘how to learn’ (study skills) are taught explicitly Marking is positive Flexible assessments

25 Dyslexic Friendly Classroom cont.
Instructions are given clearly Information is given in bite-sized chunks Thinking time is given after a question is asked Students are praised for asking for help or clarification (red/green cards can help) Spelling aids available: dictionaries, word cards, personal spelling logs, electronic spelling checkers

26 How can parents help their dyslexic child?
Read aloud to child for the purpose of: connecting pleasure with reading exposure to quality literature provide a good reading model increase vocabulary expand background knowledge Minimum of 15 minutes per day Fluency & Accuracy Strategies such as repeated reading, tape-assisted reading & partner reading will improve fluency & accuracy “3000 Instant Words” by Elizabeth Sakiey & Edward Fry-flashcards


28 Education of Educators
Structure of language Language development and issues in second language learning Psychology of reading acquisition Use of screening, progress-monitoring, and diagnostic assessments to inform instruction

29 Future for each dyslexic child should be filled with HOPE!
Each dyslexic child’s life is to be defined by his/her strengths not by his/her weakness in reading, spelling, and/or writing.

30 An Achievable Goal Almost every child with reading difficulty will progress yearly in relative standing, as a consequence of early, expert, intensive, collaborative intervention based on an understanding of best practices supported by research. Louisa Moats, Ed.D.

31 Q & A Q: How do people “get” dyslexia?
A: The causes for dyslexia are genetic & neurobiological. Q: Is there a “cure” for dyslexia? A: No, dyslexia is not a disease, and there is no cure. With proper diagnosis, appropriate instruction, hard work and support from family, teachers, friends, and others, individuals who are dyslexic can succeed in school and later as working adults.

32 Q & A Q: Can dyslexic people learn to read?
A: Yes, if children who are dyslexic get effective phonological training in Kindergarten and 1st grade, they will have significantly fewer problems in learning to read at grade level than do children who are not identified or helped until 3rd grade or later.

33 Did you know? It is never too late for individuals with dyslexia to learn to read, process and express information more efficiently. Research show that programs utilizing multisensory structured language techniques can help children and adults learn to read.

34 Sources of Information
The International Dyslexia Association The Dyslexia Handbook, Revised 2007, Updated 2010 Procedures Concerning Dyslexia and Related Disorders, Texas Education Agency Basic Facts About Dyslexia & Other Reading Problems Louisa Cook Moats & Karen E. Dakin Overcoming Dyslexia Sally Shaywitz, M.D.

35 2012 Martin Institute Summer Conference
TASL Credit: Martin 219

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