6 What is Dys-lex-ia? *Difficulties with: *Neurobiological differences in the way the brain processes language*Difficulties with:LanguageAccurate and/or fluent word recognitionPoor spellingPoor decoding abilities* Deficit in the phonological component of languageunexpected in relation to cognitive abilities of the person,and the provision of effective classroom instruction has been provided
7 What does the research indicate? Dyslexia is the result of a brain difference in the ‘wiring’of the neural pathways & parts of the brain that arerelated to language functioning & reading.Difficulty in:Processing speech sounds within words,Making the connection between letter sounds &the written letters,Deficits in phonological awareness that appearin kindergarten are predictive of difficultiesin learning to read.Instruction in phonemic awareness & reading skills that isintense, explicit, systematic, multisensory, & cumulative areconsidered to have an impact on helping to ‘rewire’ thedyslexic brain.
10 What do you see in the classroom? What does the parent notice? *Poor decoding of individual words – word attack &word recognition skills*Slow, inaccurate oral reading*Spelling difficulties – poor encoding skills*Difficulties in written language*Short-term memory & sequencing difficulties*Difficulty producing homework in a reasonable time*Low self-esteem
11 Concerned a child may be dyslexic? Collect the following information:Anecdotal notes recording classroom concerns,TPRI, DRA, running records, sight word listinformal assessments,List of accommodations provided and the results onstudent’s performance,Samples of student workParent conference notes, family history of dyslexiaAcademicdata
12 Early Reading Intervention Systematic and direct instruction in:Phonemic awareness – noticing, identifying, & manipulating the sounds of spoken languagePhonics – how letters & letter groups represent the sound ofSpoken languageSounding out words (decoding)SpellingReading sight wordsVocabulary and conceptsReading comprehension strategies
13 Early Reading Intervention cont. Practice in applying these skills in reading and in writingFluency trainingEnriched language experiences:Listening to…Talking about…Telling STORIES
14 Pre-School Signs of Dyslexia May talk later than most childrenDifficulty with rhymingDifficulty pronouncing wordsUnable to recall the right wordTrouble learning numbers, colors,shapes, how to spell/write his/her name
15 Common Signs of Dyslexia Kindergarten – 2rd gradeGrades 3-4Phonic decoding is a struggleInconsistent word recognitionDifficulty reading mathproblemsOver reliance on context and guessingOral reading-choppy &laboredTrouble segmenting & blending soundsPoor letter-sound recallPoor application of phonicsInconsistent memory for words in listsMispronouncing wordsInability to spell phonetically
16 Common Signs of Dyslexia Grades 5-6Grades 7-8Inability to complete testsin a timely mannerReverts to manuscript from cursiveOrganization of writing is difficultDecodes laboriously,skips unknown wordsAvoids reading; therefore, vocabulary declinesSlow reading, loses the meaningPersistent phonological weaknesses, less obviousPoor spelling & writingConfusions of similar wordsDoes better with structured, explicit teaching of language
17 Common Signs of Dyslexia History of reading & spelling difficultiesAvoids reading aloud & for pleasureOral reading is labored, not fluentWriting & spelling problemspersistTrouble with foreign languagestudy* Can cope when given extratime, study strategies &structured language teachingHigh School and Beyond
18 Reasons for difficulties Poor development of phonological awareness(segmenting, blending, manipulating)Difficulty learning letter names/soundsPoor phonological memoryDifficulty with rapid naming (recall of familiar objects, colors, etc.)
19 Difficulties lead to Poor word attack skills Poor accuracy, fluency, and therefore, comprehensionPoor writing skills due to lack of phonological understandingDislike for reading; therefore, student does not read enough
20 Identification of Dyslexia Poor performance in one or more areas of reading Unexpected for the student’s age Difficulty reading real words in isolation Difficulty accurately decoding nonsense words Slow, inaccurate/labored oral reading Difficulty with spelling Difficulty with the development of phonological awareness Difficulty with phonological memory Adequate intelligence
22 Myths about Dyslexia See backwards or reverse letters Will outgrow it More boys than girls have dyslexiaColored lenses and overlays will cure itLeft handedness predicted dyslexiaCannot diagnose dyslexia until after 1st gradeWhat about reversals?Reversals are more frequent and persistentReversals are not the cause of dyslexia
23 Classroom Accommodations Extended timeLack of penalty for spelling errors on assignments that preclude editingPlace emphasis on content & comprehension instead of the mechanics of reading, writing, spellingFollow 504 accommodation plan for the student
24 Create a Dyslexic Friendly Classroom Positive environment where making a mistake is acceptableFlexible groupingMultisensory Instruction (visual, auditory & kinesthetic modalities)No dictation is requiredNo reading aloud is demanded without first checking competencyLearning ‘how to learn’ (study skills) are taught explicitlyMarking is positiveFlexible assessments
25 Dyslexic Friendly Classroom cont. Instructions are given clearlyInformation is given in bite-sized chunksThinking time is given after a question is askedStudents are praised for asking for help or clarification (red/green cards can help)Spelling aids available: dictionaries, word cards, personalspelling logs, electronic spelling checkers
26 How can parents help their dyslexic child? Read aloud to child for the purpose of:connecting pleasure with readingexposure to quality literatureprovide a good reading modelincrease vocabularyexpand background knowledgeMinimum of 15 minutes per dayFluency & AccuracyStrategies such as repeated reading, tape-assisted reading & partner reading will improve fluency & accuracy“3000 Instant Words” by Elizabeth Sakiey & Edward Fry-flashcards
28 Education of Educators Structure of languageLanguage development and issues in second language learningPsychology of reading acquisitionUse of screening, progress-monitoring, and diagnostic assessments to inform instruction
29 Future for each dyslexic child should be filled with HOPE! Each dyslexic child’s life is to be defined by his/her strengths not by his/her weakness in reading, spelling, and/or writing.
30 An Achievable GoalAlmost every child with reading difficulty will progress yearly in relative standing, as a consequence of early, expert, intensive, collaborative intervention based on an understanding of best practices supported by research. Louisa Moats, Ed.D.
31 Q & A Q: How do people “get” dyslexia? A: The causes for dyslexia are genetic & neurobiological.Q: Is there a “cure” for dyslexia?A: No, dyslexia is not a disease, and there is no cure.With proper diagnosis, appropriate instruction, hardwork and support from family, teachers, friends, andothers, individuals who are dyslexic can succeed inschool and later as working adults.
32 Q & A Q: Can dyslexic people learn to read? A: Yes, if children who are dyslexic get effectivephonological training in Kindergarten and 1st grade,they will have significantly fewer problems in learningto read at grade level than do children who are notidentified or helped until 3rd grade or later.
33 Did you know?It is never too late for individuals with dyslexia to learn to read, process and express information more efficiently.Research show that programs utilizing multisensory structured language techniques can help children and adults learn to read.
34 Sources of Information The International Dyslexia AssociationThe Dyslexia Handbook, Revised 2007, Updated 2010Procedures Concerning Dyslexia and Related Disorders,Texas Education AgencyBasic Facts About Dyslexia & Other Reading ProblemsLouisa Cook Moats & Karen E. DakinOvercoming DyslexiaSally Shaywitz, M.D.
35 2012 Martin Institute Summer Conference TASL Credit: Martin 219