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WMO Information System (WIS)

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1 WMO Information System (WIS)
WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION Weather – Climate - Water WMO Information System (WIS) Dieter C. Schiessl Director, Crosscutting Coordination WMO Tel: Mobile: Fax:

2 WMO is a “system of systems”
WMO programmes directly contribute to GEO societal benefit areas Weather (WWW), Disasters (DPM), Water (HWR) Climate (WCP with co-sponsored GCOS and WCRP) Agro-meteorology (AMP), and indirectly more WMO’s World Weather Watch (WWW) includes 3 major operational systems: Global Observing System (GOS) Global Data Processing and Forecasting System (GDPFS) Global Telecommunication System (GTS) WMO Information System (WIS) will expand the GTS with new functions and connectivity to meet wider needs beyond WWW and even WMO

3 Some GTS characteristics
Integrated network interconnecting NMSs worldwide, using point-to-point and multipoint circuits, terrestrial & satellite links Hierarchical structure at 3 levels: Main Telecom Network : 3 World Centres and 15 Regional Hubs 7 Regional Meteorological Telecom Networks 180+ national centres for data collection/concentration/distribution Designed for operational time-critical data exchange among the global community of National Met Centres (NMC) and a few other agencies; Operated and funded by the NMSs; based on WMO-agreed rules (codes, abbreviated bulletin headings, protocols, procedures) Main features: exceptional reliability, continuity, timeliness

4 Regional Meteorological Telecommunication Network for Region II (Asia)
RTH in Region II NMC in Region II Moscow 64K Washington Centre in other region 64K MTN circuit Regional circuit Interregional circuit Additional circuit Novosibirsk K (V.34) Khabarovsk IMTN-MDCN CIR<32/768K> K (V.34) NI No implementation K (V.34) K (V.34) Via Moscow 9.6K K (V.34) Almaty Non-IP link IP link K (V.34) K (V.34) NI K V.34 Bishkek K (V.34) Ulaanbaatar PyongYang Tokyo Id V.34 Ashgabad Tashkent Offenbach Id V.34 IMTN-MDCN Frame Relay CIR<16/16K> CMA-VSAT IMTN-MDCN Frame Relay CIR<48/48K> CMA-VSAT NI 75 Baghdad 75 NI Tehran NI Dushanbe IMTN-MDCN Frame Relay CIR<48/48K> Beijing IMTN-MDCN Frame Relay CIR<16/8K> NI NI Frame Relay CIR<32/32K> 2.4K NI Offenbach 75 Frame Relay CIR<16/16K> 50 Kabul Kuwait 64K 64K 9.6K NI Karachi 64K IMTN-MDCN Frame Relay CIR<16/16K> Seoul Bahrain 64K 64K New Delhi Jeddah Frame Relay CIR<16/16K> 200 128K 64K 50 64K Doha 1200 Kathmandu Moscow NI Internet Emirates Internet Hong Kong 50 CMA-VSAT 64K 2.4K 100 ISDN 128K Internet 100 50 Hanoi Algiers 64K Macao Cairo Dhaka Frame Relay CIR<16/16K> Muscat Internet Internet Internet Vientiane 9.6K Internet Cairo 50 Frame Relay CIR<16/16K> Sanaa Yangon IMTN-MDCN CIR<16/32K> Colombo 1200 200 Male Melbourne 50 200 64K Washington Bangkok Manila 75 NI Phnom Penh Melbourne 2.4K Frame Relay CIR<16/16K> Regional Meteorological Telecommunication Network for Region II (Asia) December 2004 Singapore Kuala Lumpur

5 GTS current users WWW GTS
National, Regional, Specialized, and World Meteorological Centres Meteorological Satellite Operator Centres World Meteorological Centres WWW GTS Regional/Specialized Meteorological Centres National Meteorological Centres Meteorological and R&D Satellite Operator Centres

6 Commercial Service Providers
Current situation Information exchange – multiplicity of procedures; real-time and non-real time; push & pull Information management – multiplicity of data formats; few/uncoordinated metadata & catalogues World Radiation Centre Regional Instrument Centres International Organizations (IAEA, CTBTO, UNEP, FAO.. ) 5 GAW World Data Centres GCOS Data Centres Global Run-off Data Centre IRI and other climate research institutes Universities Regional Climate Centres stop stop World Meteorological Centres Regional/Specialized Meteorological Centres National Meteorological Centres Meteorological and R&D Satellite Operator Centres stop WWW GTS WWW GTS Commercial Service Providers stop stop stop WMO World Data Centres The GTS ensures the timely exchange of operation-critical information among the NMCs of the National Meteorological Servies around world. Implemented for more than half a century, it has been constantly improved with respect to capacity, functions and protocols to meet the ever growing data exchange requirements. The GTS facilitates data interoperability across the “Digital Divide” and is remarkably reliable. This is achieved through rigorous standardization (codes, procedures and protocols) and firm coordination and control. Despite modernization and improvement of the GTS there is a large degree of inflexibility and, despite its globality, it operates largely as a closed network. Data are packaged and transmitted within a message or bulletin. Each message has its specific type of content and routing information encoded in the abbreviated bulletin header. Centres connected on the GTS must interpret and use the bulletin header. This is a critical obstacle for many potential users, such as research institutions, international organizations (including certain NGOs), centres of international programmes, and even for many WMO programme centres. Many potential users cannot, for various reasons, invest in the rather complex and specialized data handling computer programmes and employ the specialists necessary for the GTS operation and maintenance. Many countries cannot afford the cost for the VPN and point-to-point connections. Overcoming that draw back is one of the main goals of WIS. Internet

7 Cg-XIV (2003) EC-LVI (2004) EC-LVII (2005)
The multiplicity of systems of the different Programmes causes incompatibilities, inefficiencies, duplication of efforts and higher overall costs. Congress approved the concept of the WMO Information System (WIS), which should provide a single coordinated global infrastructure for the collection and sharing of information in support of all WMO and related international programmes; EC-LVI (2004) Identified WIS to be one of the key contributions of WMO to GEOSS; established a coordination mechanism across TCs. EC-LVII (2005) Decided to accelerate development and implementation of WIS beginning implementation, at least in some countries, in 2006 instead of 2008, as originally planned.

8 WIS brings new features and opportunities
Interoperable information exchange standards, functions and services through Portal architecture allowing a variety of codes, protocols, and data representation forms Inter-disciplinary discovery, retrieval and exchange of information in real and non-real time through a single entry point in each country Open to all users for data discovery, to authorized users for data access (according to national data policies) Data are described in on-line catalogues using metadata based on ISO 19139 Industry standards and off-the-shelf hardware and software systems to ensure cost-effectiveness and inter- operability

9 Satellite Two-Way Systems Satellite Dissemination
WIS Information exchange – common procedures; real-time and non-real time services Information management – few standard data formats; coordinated metadata & catalogues World Radiation Centre Regional Instrument Centres International Organizations (IAEA, CTBTO, UNEP, FAO.. ) GAW World Data Centres GCOS Data Centres Global Run-off Data Centre Global Precip. Climatology Centre On-demand “pull” IRI, Hadley Centre, other climate research centres Universities Regional Climate Centres DCPC NC/ DCPC NC NC/ GISC Managed, Regional and Internet Communication Networks Satellite Two-Way Systems Satellite Dissemination (IGDDS) Commercial Service Providers WMO World Data Centres The WIS will be based on an improved GTS and integrate satellite two-way systems, alternative dissemination services provided by environmental satellites and the coordinated and free use of the Internet. The WIS architecture, functions and services will provide the solution for the information exchange needs of NMHSs, and other national centres (NCs), such as relevant non-NMHS agencies/users, national disaster management platforms, research facilities, and international programme centres. WIS will offer: Routine collection and automated dissemination of operation-critical data (e.g., meteorological, climatological, environmental and hydrological observations, forecasts, and warnings), (“GTS function”); Timely delivery of high-volume data and processed products (“push”); Ad-hoc discovery/access/retrieval services for operation-critical data and value-added information (“pull”) Discovery, access, and retrieval services for all data stored by every WMO programme regardless of location; Common procedures for real and non-real time data exchange and standardized data formats and metadata. internet Real-time “push”

10 Data Collection and Production Centre (DCPC)
National Centre (NC) Provides information collected/generated in the country to a GISC or DCPC Serves as portal for national users and/or administrates their access to WIS Several NCs in a country are possible (not just the NMC) Data Collection and Production Centre (DCPC) Provides the programme-specific data & products for international exchange Supports information “Push” and ”Pull” mechanisms Generates, maintains, makes accessible and provides to GISCs metadata catalogues of its data & products

11 Global Information System Centre (GISC)
Receives information from NCs and DCPCs Exchanges information (data and metadata) with other GISCs Disseminates, within its area of responsibility, the entire set of WMO data and products for routine global exchange Generates, maintains and makes accessible metadata catalogues of all data and products for global echange Ensures around-the-clock, reliable and secure operations

12 Information collection data flow
Plan of the WMO Information System (WIS)

13 Information distribution data flow
Plan of the WMO Information Systems (WIS)

14 IGDDS within the WIS Routine Dissemination ADM GISC
LEO satellites Global data (recorded/dumped) GEO satellites in the region R&D satellites Polar orbiting satellites Network of HRPT stations RARS Satellite products Local processing Local processing Local processing Central processing Central processing Regional processing GISC (Data, metadata and user management) Interoperability DCPC Data, metadata & user management Data exchange with other DCPCs The WMO Integrated Global Data Dissemination Service (IGDDS) is both a system and a project. IGDDS, as a system, is the circulation scheme of space-based observation data and products for WMO programmes. The IGDDS concept was initially proposed by WMO satellite user expert groups and refined by satellite operators within CGMS. Since WMO has defined the concept of a WMO Information System (WIS) as an overarching framework for all its data exchange and management, IGDDS is one of the components of the WIS. IGDDS, as a project, is the set of activities directed towards the definition and operational implementation of the IGDDS system. Main functions of IGDDS system The following main functions need to be fulfilled for space-based observation data and products: Data acquisition. Raw data are acquired from satellites, higher level data or products are acquired from product generating centres, and foreign satellite data or products are acquired at inter-regional scale from retransmitting centres Data dissemination. Routine near-real time dissemination (PUSH mode) is a core component of IGDDS. This relies on Advanced Dissemination Methods (ADMs), on point-to-point message distribution through the GTS and on Direct Broadcast from the meteorological satellites. Data access on request: This includes access to data catalogues and metadata. It allows data discovery and delivering data on request (PULL mode) to authorized users. Data and user management. This includes a number of services such as running a Rolling Requirements Review process, maintaining an interoperable catalogue, ensuring service quality, administering a user database and providing user support. IGDDS, an integral part of the WIS The IGDDS is fully integrated into the WIS, since space-based observation data are an integral and central part of meteorological observation data used for WMO operational and research activities. The IGDDS normally relies on the same data distribution capabilities and mechanisms as other components of the WIS. For example, the high data rates required to disseminate satellite imagery has driven the use of cost-efficient, scalable, systems such as Digital Video Broadcast by telecommunications satellite (DVB-S), which are designated within WMO Space Programme as Advanced Dissemination Methods (ADM). ADM are also used by some WMO Members to distribute non space-based information. Reciprocally, while the point-to-point GTS is mainly used to transmit conventional (non-satellite) data, it also supports the transmission of essential space-based products such as satellite soundings or atmospheric motion vectors. Routine Dissemination Request/ reply (Internet) Request/ reply (Internet) ADM Other media National centres and other users

15 IGDDS Integrated Global Data Dissemination Service
Thematic component of the WIS for space-based data & products IGDDS addresses requirements specific to satellite data: Data concentration (incl. GEO, LEO, RARS, R&D, products) Data distribution (ADM, Direct Broadcast, Internet push/pull, GTS) Service management (interoperable catalogue, metadata, access control, quality of service monitoring) and interactive services, user support Expanding current assets : Rolling Requirements Review for observation data EUMETCAST as a model of ADM dissemination EARS as a model for RARS Point-to-point GTS as backbone to send products to NWP centres EARS = Eumetsat ATOVS Retransmission Service RARS = Regional ATOVS Retransmission Service

16 WIS Implementation Development of: Metadata catalogues
Internet portals Data acquisition and discovery service Data distribution service: push and pull Monitoring and control functions Operational aspects like data synchronisation, back-up, administrative issues, etc. through pilot projects …

17 Main WIS Pilot Projects
JCOMM: GISC-E2EDM prototype (Obninsk, Russian Federation); CBS: VPN Pilot Project in RAs II and V; CCl: CliWare (Obninsk, Russian Federation); EUMETNET: UNIDART project (Uniform data request interface); CBS: SIMDAT / RA VI Virtual GISC project involving 10 leading centres in RA II, IV, V and VI; CAgM: WAMIS (World Agrometeoroloigcal Information Service, Republic of Korea); CAS: THORPEX/TIGGE (THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble) JCOMM GISC-E2EDM “End-to-End Data Management” prototype (Obninsk, Russian Federation); The E2EDM system is a “virtual marine data centre” involving product generation, assembly, archiving and collection, based on the best data management practices. Included are: Grid technology metadata management concept, DiGIR (OBIS) request/response protocol database access service, OPeNDAP (NetCDF) format for “transport” data files, utilities for coding/encoding data, ESIMO (Russia) data model, navigation services, data search mechanism and visualization tools, data file access service, NercDG object segmentation ideology, Sea Sea-Search CDI (Common Data Index), WMO Core Search CDI (Common Data Index), WMO Core Metadata and the E2EDM Global XML Schema. CCl CliWare (Obninsk, Russian Federation); CliWare is an information system for climate data providings a 24/7 operational mode via public Internet. Included are formats such as MeteoXml, HTML, text tabulated data, graph images, GML features, Map coverage, Geo images, and WMO FM codes. CliWare retrieves requested data from its database and generates an output data set in the requested form and format. To dissemination service can use HTTP (request reply method), WMO FTP (request reply method), SMTP (push method by ) and SMS (push method by cell phone). CAgM WAMIS (World Agrometeoroloigcal Information Service, Republic of Korea) CAgM established a Web portal called WAMIS. Participating countries are Italy, Republic of Korea and the USA. It provides an extension of WIS functions and services tailored to meet the needs of the agrometeorological community. This includes databases, simulation models, and tools for GIS. CBS–coordinated Regions II/V Pilot Project on Internet Virtual Private Network (Internet-VPN) Led by Japan, this project conducts a feasibility study by simulating several of the technical requirements and functions required in WIS. The project. 11 countries participate. The study has already demonstrated the feasibility of using Internet-VPN in WIS; further studies will address simplified VPN techniques suitable for very small National Centres, encryption, authorization, privilege levels and authentication for security of data; the ability of a NC to enter its observational data directly through the system (with conversion to BUFR and generation of necessary metadata) , the capability for an NC to request data such as satellite imagery or NWP output suitable for display under SATAID ([1]), interfaces to other projects such as VGISC and UNIDART in Europe. EUMETNET UNIDART project UNIDART (UNIform DAta Request InTerface) is a Data Communication Programme that services data requests between users and meteorological data centres. The programme will be implemented as a Web portal application where registered users can log on and access the data stored in more than one data centre. The data access will further be under the control of each data centre. Participants are Finland (FMI), Norway (DNMI), The Netherlands (KNMI), UK Met Office and MeteoSwiss and Germany (DWD). CBS RA VI – Virtual GISC project The basic task of a GISC is the control of global data exchange using WMO- and Internet standards in the data transmission. The project demonstrates that a GISC can consist of a number of regional GISC partners, which are linked to a virtual VGISC. A VGISC provides a uniform external interface to the user and appear to the user as one centre. Special synchronisation and control functions are needed for this purpose. As a result of such “parallelisation” the performance and availability of the overall system is increased, the data traffic is better distributed and the computer cost of the individual partner centres is lower. Backup increases the operational resilience because the other partners take over in case of failure. The user communicates with a VGSIC in the same way as with a GISC using Web browser, FTP and . By end-2006 the NMHSs of Germany, France and the UK will form a VGISC and ECMWF, EUMETSAT and centres in RA II, IV and V interconnect. TIGGE: THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble Currently (2006), this global multi-model ensemble system consists of three models (CMA, ECMWF, NCAR). It is expected to be distributed over a number repository sites and offer the user transparent and efficient access to the products. The challenge with respect to data exchange and management is formidable and important insights are expected from this project as regards the required operational capabilities of WIS. [1] SATAID is a satellite data presentation software package provided by JMA

18 EU-funded SIMDAT / RA VI Virtual GISC project - A portal will be installed on each site running SIMDAT software and will give users a single view of all the data available at all sites. A demonstration at CBS-Ext(069 (Nov. 2006) will show some of the portals and that users can discover the data from the different sites. (USA) (Australia) (China) (Japan)

19 WIS Implementation 2006 Reference implementation WMO Core metadata;
Integration of metadata structures into pilot GISCs and DCPCs Internet portal Basic data acquisition, discovery and push-pull services; RA VI VGISC project as a GISC prototype; DCPCs prototypes including the ECMWF and EUMETSAT DCPC projects associated with the VGISC project; an NCAR DCPC prototype; a DCPC prototype for JCOMM related data;

20 WIS Deliverables (2007 – 2008) Pilot and demo projects will be evaluated Continuing promotion of WIS; WMO Metadata catalogues Begin of development of an “open source” software library, metadata acquisition & synchronisation, including Internet portal software;  Some GISCs will become operational offering metadata; Internet portals; “push/pull” services; performance monitoring; Some DCPCs and NCs, will be linked to the GISCs; Data discovery service operational; Development and implementation of the WIS training components Regional implementation plans will be developed; Network performance monitoring

21 WIS and GEOSS GEOSS comprises a GEO Information System of Systems (GEO-ISS) GEO-ISS to serve 9 societal benefit areas and provide 6 main functions in each of these areas: data collection, management, storage, routine distribution, on request retrieval and interactive services WIS (including IGDDS) is a core contributor to GEO-ISS covering mainly the weather, climate and water-related themes providing all 6 functions for relevant data under the responsibility of WMO It is expected that other networks provided by other communities will serve the needs of other themes, all being interoperable

22 Potential WIS contributions to GEOSS
WIS will provide data and products related to WMO programmes contributing to GEO (in particular for weather, climate, water, natural disasters related societal benefit areas) WIS will offer access to these data for other GEO users outside WMO WIS can potentially assist in other GEO data exchanges, if technically compatible and cost-efficient WIS’ multidisciplinary, global, multifunction architecture could serve as an example for other relevant networks needed for the GEO information exchange

23 GEO-NETCast within GEOSS (1)
GEO-NETcast (a component of GEO-ISS) provides a high-capacity (satellite dissemination) service available for all GEO themes GEO-NETCast will have certain components in common with WIS, e.g., IGDDS/EUMETCAST is a contribution to GEO-NETCast & WIS use of common data management standards GEO-NETcast governance will take into account the overall GEO-ISS architecture and requirments of data providers and users, and infrastructure providers GEO-Netcast is an initiative led within the GEO framework by EUMETSAT, NOAA and WMO to address the global dissemination needs of GEOSS environmental data in a coordinated way. The GEO-Netcast concept is to use the multicast capability of a global network of communications satellites to transmit environmental satellite and in situ data and products from providers to users within GEO. Commercially available technology provides cost-efficient solutions with easy to implement terminals, which are widely used for Direct to Home digital television. The multicast capability allows different data sets to be handled in parallel regardless of the source. The use of a key access capability enables to respect the data policy of each data provider and to target the distribution at individuals or groups of users as appropriate, within the footprint of each satellite. GEO-Netcast builds on the experience gained by EUMETSAT with the EUMETCast operational dissemination system and on the WMO IGDDS concept. It proposes to expand this approach in order to establish a true global dissemination system responding the needs of all the nine GEO societal benefit areas.

24 Data exchange and management functions
Common set of interoperability standards System Z Requirements Collection Data management Dissemination Discovery & retrieval Archive System Y Requirements Collection Data management Dissemination Discovery & retrieval Archive WIS (incl IGDDS) Requirements Collection Data management Dissemination Discovery & retrieval Archive System X Requirements Collection Data management Dissemination Discovery & retrieval Archive

25 GEO-Netcast within GEOSS (2)
Common set of interoperability standards System Z System Y Requirements Collection Data management DIssemination Discovery & retrieval Archive WIS (incl IGDDS) Requirements Collection Data management DIssemination Discovery & retrieval Archive System X Requirements Collection Data management Dissemination Discovery & retrieval Archive Requirements Collection Geonetcast Data management Archive Dissemination Discovery & retrieval

26 GEO-NETCast within GEOSS (3)
Users would benefit from a single access to data from all providers through unique interface (e.g. TV viewer selecting programmes) Issues: levels of integration, e.g., one DCPC per region ? or several dealing with different themes ? one single telecom service provider for the globe ? one per region ? In case of several DCPCs relying on different telecom service providers, could the user still access the data through an single GEO-Netcast interface? Scenarios to be investigated with respect to technical feasibility, cost and risk, bearing in mind user interest, governance and policy issues in order to get wide support across GEO

27 Main challenges: Development of interoperability through active involvement and contribution of all WMO Programmes and Technical Commissions Promotion and support of pilot projects and prototype solutions Regional and sub-regional development and implementation planning

28 WMO Information System
Thank you WIS WMO Information System

29 Frequently asked questions (1)
Q1: Will there still be a GTS data exchange mechanism as we know it today? Yes, but with additional functions and flexibility Q2: With several NCs within a country, what is the role of the NMC/RTH? Only the NMC/RTH will manage the GTS traffic according to the WMO Manual on the GTS In addition, the NMC/RTH could be selected as the national network coordinator for connection and access rights of the “other” NCs Q3: Who are the so-called “other” NCs in a country? Examples are national or international data centres, academia, research institutions, commercial service providers

30 Frequently asked questions (2)
Q4: What will be the WIS operational role of a NMHS? The NMHS will gain timely and cost-effective access to information, in particular new data and products, which will improve its own operations. The NMC is will also be enable to provide data and critical information to other national agencies/users (dealing in disaster mitigation, agriculture, energy and water management, and so forth) that was not available to them, or difficult to obtain. The NMC would “push” to them routine information, such as warnings, advisories, selected measurements, etc., and help discover, select and channel relevant information to users, either ad hoc, in the “pulling” mode, or in reply to a non-real-time request. WIS will enhance the visibility and role of the NMHS

31 Frequently asked questions (3)
Q5: Is there a financial or administrative burden on the NMC? Financial - That depends on how the national network is organized; NO! if the “other” NCs are directly connected to the Network Service Provider YES! if the NC data flow through the NMC: Administrative – YES! If the NMC assumes the responsibility of the national WIS network manager addressing NC access rights, accounting and service availability, etc.

32 Frequently asked questions (4)
Q6: Does the WIS comply with the WMO data policy (Res. 40 (Cg-XII) and Res. 25 (Cg-XIII)), and is it flexible enough to follow an evolution of the WMO data policy? Yes, the management and practices related to essential and additional data and products and related conditions will remain unchanged Procedures for managing of access rights, control of data retrieval, registration and identification of users, etc. can be defined as and when required Anonymous downloading is technically possible, but depends on whether a NC permits that function

33 Frequently asked questions (5)
Q7: Are there implications in connection with relevant international law, convention, such as copyright, patent, etc.? WIS has no system-inherent features that would violate international legal frameworks; the control procedures are fully within the responsibility of the NMCs. Q8: Is WIS affordable, in particularly to developing countries? WIS will be based on industry standards, off-the-shelf hardware and open source software. That means the initial investment is determined by the cost for PCs and the required Internet and/or VPN connections. Generic solutions will be the exception.

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