2 An important turning point for evolutionary theory was the birth of population genetics, which emphasizes the extensive genetic variation within populations and recognizes the importance of quantitative characters.Advances in population genetics in the 1930s allowed the perspectives of Mendelism and Darwinism to be reconciled.This provided a genetic basis for variation and natural selection.
3 A comprehensive theory of evolution, the modern synthesis, took form in the early 1940’s. It integrated discoveries and ideas from paleontology, taxonomy, biogeography, and population genetics.The architects of the modern synthesis included geneticists Theodosius Dobzhansky and Sewall Wright, biogeographer and taxonomist Ernst Mayr, paleontologist George Gaylord Simpson, and botanist G. Ledyard Stebbins.
4 Essential Terminology GeneAllele (dominant and recessive)Gene pool: The total aggregate of genes in a population at any one timeGene frequency: fraction of a particular allele in a population divided by the total number of allelesF(A)=pF(a)=qp+q=1
6 Intro to Population Genetics Hardy-Weinberg Law (HW): theorem for predicting the behavior of genes in populations. (this is a.k.a HW Equilibrium Theory)HW stated in wordsIf certain restrictive conditions are met, gene frequencies and distributions stay constant forever. (a.k.a. HW equilibrium)HW stated algebraicallyp2 + 2pq + q2 = 1(AA) + (Aa) + (aa) = 1