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Colorectal "Colon" Cancer

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Presentation on theme: "Colorectal "Colon" Cancer"— Presentation transcript:

1 Colorectal "Colon" Cancer
Nora Dillow, Erin Murphy, Cassandra Harger

2 What is Colon Cancer? -develops in the digestive tract
from polyps (growth on large intestine) -usually start benign. -Over time the the polyps can mutate into a cancerous tumor. - cancerous cells then invade and destroy the nearby tissue cells, and can also break away to form new tumors around the body. -most colon cancers begin in the sigmoid region

3 Causes of Colon Cancer The cause: when polyps- clusters cover the inner wall of the colon. High risk factors that may lead to Colon Cancer -family history of colon cancer (yes it is inherited and anyone carrying the genes FAP or HNPCC have a 50% chance of carrying them on to their children ) -if you have ulcerative colitis or Crohn colitis -had or have Breast, Uterine, or Ovarian Cancer Interesting fact The risk of colon cancer increases 2-3 times for people with a parent or sibling with colon cancer. The risk increases more if you have more than one family member affected; especially if that family member was diagnosed at a young age. There have been studies that relate environmental factors leading to colon cancer; such as... -diets that are high in red meat -physical inactivity -obesity -smoking -treatment of others cancers

4 How Colon Cancer is Detected
Through your own judgement these symptoms - change in bowel habits, such as diarrhea, constipation, or narrowing of the stool, that lasts for more than a few days -A feeling that you need to have a bowel movement but is not relieved by doing so -Rectal bleeding, dark stools, or blood in the stool -Cramping or abdominal (belly) pain -Weakness and fatigue -Unintended weight loss Through medical examination. -physical exam -blood tests -colonoscopies -imaging tests (x-rays, sound waves, cat scans...)

5 Different stages in Colon Cancer
In stage 0 abnormal cells are found in the mucosa (innermost layer) of the colon wall. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread. Stage 0 is also called carcinoma in situ.

6 Different stages in Colon Cancer
In stage 1 cancer has formed in the innermost layer of the colon wall

7 Different stages in Colon Cancer
Stage 2 Cancer has spread through the muscle layer of the colon wall to the outermost layer of the colon wall. Cancer has spread through the outermost layer of the colon wall but has not spread to nearby organs. Cancer has spread through the outermost layer of the colon wall to nearby organs.

8 Different stages in Colon Cancer
Cancer may have spread through the innermost layer of the colon wall may have spread to the muscle layer of the colon wall. Cancer has spread to one or more nearby lymph nodes or cancer cells have formed in tissues near the lymph nodes.

9 Different stages in Colon Cancer
Cancer may have spread through the colon wall and may have spread to nearby organs or lymph nodes. Cancer has spread to one organ that is not near the colon, such as the liver, lung, or ovary. Cancer has spread to more than one organ that is not near the colon or into the lining of the abdominal wall.

10 Effects on the body Colon cancer can cause a person to feel tired or weak, lose weight, and have general discomfort in their digestive system and bowel movements. In the later stages of colon cancer, the cancer can spread beyond the rectum into other parts of the body. In the final stage of colon cancer, the cancer has spread to other organs, such as the liver or lungs.

11 Additional Information
is the fourth most common cancer in men and women. Caught early, it is often curable. It is more common in people over 50, and the risk increases with age. You are also more likely to get it if you have -Polyps - growths inside the colon and rectum that may become cancerous -A diet that is high in fat -A family history or personal history of colorectal cancer -Ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease

12 Possible Treatments: Stage 0
~Is treated by stage ranging from 0- 4. ~Stage 0: >Surgery because the cancer has not moved beyond the inner lining of the colon >In surgery cancer is removed by either polypectomy or colectomy >Polypectomy is removing of polyp (colonoscope extension) >Colectomy (tumor too large to be removed through polypectomy) cutting above where the cancer is and attaching the end to an opening of skin on the abdomen to allow waste out

13 Possible Treatments Stages 1 & 2
>Cancer has grown but not outside colon wall so only partial colectomy (still surgery) ~Stage 2: >May only need colectomy, but depends on if the cancer has a high chance of coming back, then chemotherapy is needed >Factors determining if Chemotherapy is needed: seen as abnormal under microscope shows microsatellite instability(MSI) grown to nearby organs surgery did not remove a minimum of 12 lymph nodes parts of cancer were left behind blocked off the colon caused a hole to form in the wall of the colon

14 Possible Treatments Stages 3 & 4
> some surgery followed by chemo are standard >radiation therapy may be used if doctors think some cancer cells are still present ~Stage 4: >cancer has spread to distinct organs & tissues such as, liver, lungs, peritoneum and ovaries >surgery used to remove certain parts followed or even before surgery chemotherapy is given >operations may be performed, one being colectomy, this can be avoided by inserting a stent (hollow or metal plastic tube) into the colon

15 Is there a cure? ~Some ways to cure this cancer are through surgery and treatments but some are not always effective ~Most times, patients are cured through but other times death is possible Stage 5-year Survival Rate I 74% IIA 67% IIB 59% IIC 37% IIIA 73% IIIB 46% IIIC 28% IV 6%

16 Prevention ~Screening: best method to prevent any type of cancer, first abnormal polyps can be found but it takes 10~15 years to develop into colorectal cancer ~Genetic testing and checking with those who have strong family history: not always perfect, but can determine which members of your family have the strongest chance of getting colon cancer ~Diet, exercise and body weight: obesity in women and men (belly- fat in men), red and processed meats have been found linked to colon cancer, more physical activity and a diet low in red and processed meats reduces your risk for colon cancer

17 Prevention continued... ~Vitamins, calcium and magnesium: certain studies show that specific vitamins lower the risk of colorectal cancer, but a lot more research needs to be done ~Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil) and naproxen (Aleve) have been proven to lower risk of colon cancer and adenomatous polyps,but can have serious side- effects like stomach bleeding from irritation ~Female hormones: can reduce the risk of colon cancer but other cancers found in women taking hormones were in the more advanced stages

18 Support Groups online support -through online support sites,
such as the daily strength, you can meet others that have or have a loved one with colon cancer. They give words of advice and sympathy to those who need it. - support sites Telephone support groups -Where you can connect with other people from across the country who share similar concerns -usually in one-hour sessions. HOPE face-to face support groups -Where sufferers of colon cancer get together in a non-judgemental environment and make friends and wish for hope. -Can be found through the CancerCare oncology stationed in New York, Long Island, New Jersey, and Connecticut.

19 Sources -

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