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© Boardworks Ltd 20051 of 21 Resistant Materials Tools and Techniques These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. © Boardworks Ltd 2005 1 of 21
© Boardworks Ltd 20052 of 21 Learning objectives © Boardworks Ltd 20052 of 21 Learning objectives To recognize and learn the uses of a range of hand tools designed for marking out and shaping. To recognize and learn the uses of a range of machine tools, including drills. To understand the various soldering and welding processes. To become familiar with different finishing techniques and know how best to carry them out.
© Boardworks Ltd 20053 of 21 In this section we will be looking at tools and equipment for working with the three main groups of materials which you use in school: The tools that you use are divided into two main groups: Hand tools PlasticsMetalsWoods Machine tools Processes
© Boardworks Ltd 20054 of 21 Hand tools have been around for hundreds of thousands of years. They were the first tools used and have been improved hugely over the ages. Modern hand tools are convenient, inexpensive and versatile. Hand tools
© Boardworks Ltd 20055 of 21 Match up each tool, its name and what it is used for. Tools for marking out
© Boardworks Ltd 20056 of 21 Tools for shaping
© Boardworks Ltd 20057 of 21 Electricity has made work easier for us. Portable electric tools are widely used for Do It Yourself. Most homes have at least one portable electric tool. Portable machine tools are easy to use, more powerful than hand tools and they save us unnecessary work. Can you think of any disadvantages to using machine instead of hand tools? Portable machine tools
© Boardworks Ltd 20058 of 21 Portable machine tools
© Boardworks Ltd 20059 of 21 Drilling
© Boardworks Ltd 200510 of 21 oxy-acetylene welding Metals can be permanently joined together using heat by welding or soldering. There are three types of soldering: soft solder There are three types of welding: silver solderbrazing. arc weldingspot welding. Joining metals
© Boardworks Ltd 200511 of 21 In electrical work, components and wires are joined together with a soldering iron. The process is called soft soldering. Solder is a low melting point alloy of lead and tin. The wires are put in contact and heat is applied. When it is hot, solder is added. The solder melts before the wires. The flux (flow) prevents oxidation. The molten solder is allowed to cool. Soft soldering
© Boardworks Ltd 200512 of 21 Silver soldering is used in jewellery making. Silver solder has a higher melting point than soft solder. It is an alloy of copper, zinc and silver. Heat is often applied with a soldering torch. Silver soldering
© Boardworks Ltd 200513 of 21 Pieces of mild steel may be joined together permanently by brazing. Brass (an alloy of copper and zinc) is used. The surfaces must be clean, smooth and a good ‘fit’. Flux is used to prevent oxidation and help the molten braze to run into the area to be joined. A blow torch is used to produce the high temperature required to melt the braze. The final joint is very strong. Brazing
© Boardworks Ltd 200514 of 21 Try and spot three things in the classroom or workshop that are likely to have been welded. Welding mild steel
© Boardworks Ltd 200515 of 21 Finishes are used to protect and improve the appearance of the material. Prepare by sanding wood or degreasing metal. Apply primer to help paint adhere. Apply an undercoat to prepare for the topcoat afterwards. The material can be brushed or sprayed. Finishes
© Boardworks Ltd 200516 of 21 The surface needs to be smooth and free from dust or grease. If it isn’t, then the paint/varnish will stick to the dust and fall off when the dust is blown away! With wood, you need to use progressively finer grades of glass paper. With metals, it is important to degrease the surface before applying paint. Surface preparation
© Boardworks Ltd 200517 of 21 Prepare by sanding wood or degreasing metal. Apply primer to help paint adhere. Smooth undercoat with ‘flour’ paper. Apply undercoat to prepare for final coat. Apply topcoat. Some paints are combined primer and undercoat or undercoat and topcoat. Paints may be applied by brush or spray. Paint
© Boardworks Ltd 200518 of 21 Metal polish can be applied by hand, a polishing mop on a buffing machine will save time and energy. or Varnish or lacquer can be applied to preserve the polished effect. Metals can be polished to a shine. Polish
© Boardworks Ltd 200519 of 21 Wood finishing processes
© Boardworks Ltd 200520 of 21 Heat the metal object to 180°C. Coating metal with a thin layer of plastic provides a range of colours, prevents corrosion, improves appearance and makes it more comfortable to hold. Most dish- washer racks have been dip coated. The process is outlined opposite: Put it into a fluidising tank. The plastic particles melt and stick to the surface of the hot metal. Reheat the metal to give an even finish. Allow to cool. Dip coating
© Boardworks Ltd 200521 of 21 Key points © Boardworks Ltd 200521of 21 Key points Hand tools can be used for marking out or shaping. Machine tools are more powerful and include saws, drills and grinders. Metals can be joined by soldering (soft soldering, silver soldering or brazing) or welding (oxy-acetylene, arc or spot welding). Finishes can include varnish or paint, which can be sprayed or painted on.
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© Boardworks Ltd of 19 Resistant Materials Adhesives These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes.
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© Boardworks Ltd of 17 Resistant Materials Metals These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page.
© Boardworks Ltd of 15 Resistant Materials Manufacturing Processes These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available.
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