Motivation and Emotion Objectives: What are the 4 Theories of Motivation;
MotivationMotivation The stimulus that moves a person to behave in ways to accomplish a goal. The stimulus that moves a person to behave in ways to accomplish a goal. Psychologists know people are motivated because they can observe them. Psychologists know people are motivated because they can observe them. The psychology of motivation deals with the WHYS of behavior. The psychology of motivation deals with the WHYS of behavior.
Needs A condition where we desire something we lack. Biological Food, oxygen, water, sleep Psychological Achievement, self-esteem, social approval, sense of belonging What motivates you “psychologically?” Is “love” a psychological need?
Psychological Needs are different than Biological Needs Not necessarily based on deprivation Psychological needs can be learned Shaped by culture and learning
DrivesDrives forces that motivate an organism to take action drives The forces that motivate an organism to take action are drives. Biological drives include Hunger Thirst psychological The longer we are deprived of something, the stronger our drive is. So if we have to go to the toilet, the longer we wait, the more it gets in our head. This is a psychological drive.
Theories of Motivation: Instinct Instincts Behavior patterns that are genetically transmitted from one generation to another are Instincts. bird songs; fighting postures in fish Human behavior is more learned than instinctive So this doesn’t necessarily apply…
Motivated by: Drive -Reduction You are motivated (driven) to do “whatever” in an effort to relieve the tension created by the drive. HUH?!?!? homeostasis We strive to achieve homeostasis—balance in our basic drives – Hungry—you eat to reduce the drive to eat. – Want to be rich? You are motivated to do what it takes to be so… Doesn’t always apply…..Do we eat that second brownie because we’re hungry—or because we WANT it???
SocioculturalSociocultural Basic drives are a big part of motivation but culture also is a big influence Think about it: Pizza or tacos in Italy? Football or soccer in the U.S.? Rap or country music in New York City? Kissing on the mouth or rubbing noses in the Arctic? We will all have basic motivations but what we grow up around strongly influences our decisions.
Take one of my Post it notes Write down one thing that you need to “make your day. (mine—a cup of coffee in the morning) Repeat (something to nibble on between 1 st and 2 nd class) Repeat (to feel like I’ve done a good job in class for the day) Stick these on the top of your desk.
Motivated by: Humanistic Theory The desire for personal growth and artistic fulfillment. Sometimes this outweighs our basic needs. (think about artists who give up comfort or security) Abraham Maslow Humanistic Theory Abraham Maslow developed his theory about people’s drive to fulfill their self-actualization based on the Humanistic Theory
The need to become what you believe you are capable of being— You begin to fulfill higher needs after fulfilling the more basic (survival) needs. Hierarchy of Needs Hierarchy of Needs=a ranking of needs in order of importance.
Maslow’s Theory of Physiological Needs Food, water warmth, rest Physiological Needs Food, water warmth, rest Safety Protection from danger, security, stability Safety Protection from danger, security, stability Love and Belongingness Love, acceptance, belongingness Love and Belongingness Love, acceptance, belongingness Self- Actualization Fulfillment of potential Self- Actualization Fulfillment of potential Esteem Achievement, competence Recognition, respect from others Esteem Achievement, competence Recognition, respect from others The Hierarchy of Needs
What he believes Take out one of the foundation steps, a person will not be able to achieve full “self- actualization.”
What do you think? How do you feel about moving to a new school? (Hey, we’re going to Minot!!!) How do you do if you REALLY need to go to the bathroom and Ms. Ready continues to lecture? Take a test and you’re hungry? Didn’t sleep? Mom/Dad “don’t approve.” You’re scared …. Your boy/girlfriend just broke up with you…
Now, back to the Post it notes On the board, one at a time, put your notes on the correct level of the pyramid. What about the needs of this class? What about yours? What influenced their day? What motivated their actions… Would these look different from a group of adults?
Which Theory of Motivation do you feel best explains human motivation? Instinct? Instinct? Drive Reduction Drive Reduction Sociocultural Sociocultural Humanistic Humanistic
For “homework” Answer the previous question—short paragraph form. Justify your reasoning.
Activity: Building Maslow’s Pyramid Take 5 cups: on each write one example of physiological needs. On the inside bottom of the cup, put the letter “P”; On 4 cups write an example of what safety would be. Put an “S” on the inside bottom 3=love and belongs. “L” on the inside bottom 2=examples of esteem. “E” on the inside bottom 1-example of self-actualization. “SA” on inside. With your partners stack your 15 cups up into a pyramid.
Question #3 p 302 Take Home Exam Question #3 p 302 Be motivated to self-actualize on this one! Choose a point of view and support it. Some things to consider – What do you think of Maslow’s Theory? Do you understand? Is it Right? / wrong? / fits you? – Go to S9 / S20 in your book. There’s a couple of pages of help if you need it. Perhaps the first “map” will help you organize your thoughts… On p S9 pay particular attention to 5-6-7 : Large grade—NOT a “reflection.” – Due: Large grade—NOT a “reflection.”
HappinessHappiness We work to achieve, regain, recover happiness. AngerAnger Affects our entire world. Best emotion to learn how to control, alter. Affects our entire world. Best emotion to learn how to control, alter.
Facial Expressions Paul Ekman found that 7 facial expressions appear to be universal – Anger, Disgust, Fear, Interest, Joy, Surprise, Sadness Suggests that emotions are inborn rather than culturally based.
Which Baby is Which? Anger, Disgust, Fear, Interest, Joy, Surprise, Sadness
Joy Anger Interest Disgust Surprise Sadness Fear
Lie to Me We are probably born with the ability to read facial expressions. Smiling-friendly Showing teeth-anger All help us survive in the world. People with autism experience difficulty recognizing facial expressions.
Debates in Emotion Research Which comes first, physiological arousal or the subjective experience of an emotion? Can we react emotionally before appraising a situation, or does thinking always precede emotion?
Common Sense Theory Emotion-arousing stimulus leads to a conscious feeling (fear, anger) and a physiological response. Seeing an angry dog triggers feelings of fear and physical responses such as trembling.
1. James-Lange Theory A stimulus in the environment triggers physiological (bodily) arousal. Our awareness of the physiological response leads to our experience of emotion.
Or Ms. Uram and her grading pen!! (careful, she’s my friend and I’m on her side!!!)
3. Two-Factor Theory Emotions involve two factors: – A physiological arousal – A cognitive label of the arousal How a person interprets a situation in the environment Also called the Schachter-Singer Theory
4. Zajonc’s Theory That repeated exposure to a stimulus brings about an attitude change in relation to the stimulus. His work is important in the study of group behavior. Suggested that deliberate thinking (cognition) is not necessary for all emotions – (do married people started to “act alike” after many years?) Some emotions skip the thinking part of the brain
Can we apply these same ideas today? What are the dangers of using emotions to appeal to reason? A 1943 explanation of Nazi Germany.
Learning to Control Emotions Learning to control emotional response helps deal with life— This is the importance of studying/recognizing emotions in psychology…
Dealing with Emotional Responses List some ways that you can learn to deal with emotions (yours, others, those you like, don’t like—no boundaries) Understanding behaviors in others