2 Methods of Energy Transfer ConductionConvectionRadiation
3 ConductionThe transfer of energy as heat between particles as they collide within a substance or between two objects in contact.Example – Placing a metal spoon in a bowl of hot soup makes the spoon hot. Heat is transferred from the soup to the spoon.
4 ConvectionThe transfer of energy by the movement of fluids with different temperatures. This is only possible if the substance is a fluid – either a liquid or a gas – because particles within solids are not as free to move.Example – Heat rises from a candle when you place your hands over the flame.
5 RadiationThe transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves. This does not require physical contact between objects. It also does not require the movement of matter. Radiation is the only method of transfer that can occur in a vacuum such as space.Example – the sun warming the earth; standing near a campfire
6 ConductorsA material through which energy can be easily transferred as heat.Gases are poor conductors because particles are too far apart.Liquids are better conductors compared to gases.The best conductors are metals such as copper and silver.
7 InsulatorsA material that is a poor energy conductor. They transfer heat slowly.Solids such as rubber, wool, and wood are good insulators.We use insulators if we want to reduce the amount of heat that is transferred.
8 Specific HeatIs the amount of energy transferred as heat that will raise the temperature of 1 kg of substance by 1 Kelvin. For example, if the specific heat of water is J/kg∙K, it would take 4186 J of energy to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1 Kelvin.