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IMM Atom_based Nanotechnology workshop, 19 th January 2011, Arcetri (FI), Italy The network on graphene at IMM OUTLINE The IMM graphene research network.

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Presentation on theme: "IMM Atom_based Nanotechnology workshop, 19 th January 2011, Arcetri (FI), Italy The network on graphene at IMM OUTLINE The IMM graphene research network."— Presentation transcript:

1 IMM Atom_based Nanotechnology workshop, 19 th January 2011, Arcetri (FI), Italy The network on graphene at IMM OUTLINE The IMM graphene research network The agreement with Industry Competences and acquired know how at IMM Agrate (MDM) Competences and acquired know how at IMM CT Slide 1/15 Istituto per la Microelettronica e Microsistemi

2 IMM Atom_based Nanotechnology workshop, 19 th January 2011, Arcetri (FI), Italy Bologna Roma Napoli Lecce Catania Milano The graphene research network at IMM Graphene like materials (silicene, germanene, …) Memories and logics Advanced characterisation & sensors See V. Morandi, R. Rizzoli materials fundamentals & devices (Rf, power, …) Slide 2/15

3 IMM Atom_based Nanotechnology workshop, 19 th January 2011, Arcetri (FI), Italy Bologna Roma Napoli Lecce Catania Milano The graphene research network at IMM Graphene like materials (silicene, germanene, …) Memories and logics Advanced characterisation & sensors See V. Morandi, R. Rizzoli materials fundamentals & devices (Rf, power, …) Slide 3/15

4 IMM Atom_based Nanotechnology workshop, 19 th January 2011, Arcetri (FI), Italy Bologna Roma Napoli Lecce Catania Milano The graphene research network at IMM Graphene like materials (silicene, germanene, …) Memories and logics Advanced characterisation & sensors See V. Morandi, R. Rizzoli materials fundamentals & devices (Rf, power, …) Slide 2/15

5 IMM Atom_based Nanotechnology workshop, 19 th January 2011, Arcetri (FI), Italy Bologna Roma Napoli Lecce Catania Milano The graphene research network at IMM Graphene like materials (silicene, germanene, …) Memories and logics Advanced characterisation & sensors See V. Morandi, R. Rizzoli materials fundamentals & devices (Rf, power, …) The industrial cluster 3Sun Slide 2/15

6 IMM Atom_based Nanotechnology workshop, 19 th January 2011, Arcetri (FI), Italy Bologna Roma Napoli Lecce Catania Milano The graphene research network at IMM Graphene like materials (silicene, germanene, …) Memories and logics Advanced characterisation & sensors See V. Morandi, R. Rizzoli materials fundamentals & devices (Rf, power, …) The industrial cluster 3Sun Slide 2/15 J.D.P. J.D.A.

7 IMM Atom_based Nanotechnology workshop, 19 th January 2011, Arcetri (FI), Italy IMM-Agrate expertise on ReRAM memory devices Challenge: Resistive Random Access Memory (ReRAM) in graphene. EMMA Project-FP6 (1/9/2006-30/11/2009): Emerging Materials for Mass-storage Architectures (contact: Marco Fanciulli and Sabina Spiga) MORE Project 2010-2012 (CARIPLO): Advanced Metal- Oxide heterostructure for nanoscle ReRAM (contact: Sabina Spiga) ReRAM: a large class of emerging non-volatile memory concepts is based on a 2-terminal resistor as a memory element that can be programmed in a high and low conductive state Memristor concept introduced by HP Large interest from worldwide industries on ReRAM for post high-density FLASH and for Flexible Nonvolatile Memory Applications Graphene Oxide Thin Films (as switching element) for Flexible Nonvolatile Memory applications H.Y. Jeong at al., Nanoletters 2010, 10, 4381–4386 single layer graphene as electrode on Nb-doped STO substrate for Pt/NiO/graphene nano-ReRAM graphene IMM-Agrate expertise up to now: NiO, Nb 2 O 5, TiO 2 based metal/oxide/metal thin film- and nanowire- heterostructures J. Y. Son et al., ACS Nano 4, 2010, 2655-2658 Slide 3/15 CNR- IMM- Agrate

8 IMM Atom_based Nanotechnology workshop, 19 th January 2011, Arcetri (FI), Italy MBE of Si on Ag(110), Ag(111) substrates Ref. Aufray et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 223109 (2010); Aufray et al, ibidem 96, 183102 (2010) Option 1: silicene on metals, (in analogy with graphene) Option 2: encapsulation silicene with 2D hexagonal dielectric lattices Challenge: Graphene-like materials graphite-like AlN 2D top lattice graphite-like AlN 2D bottom lattice functionalized silicene Graphene like semiconductors (silicene, germanene) valuable option for active material in Post-CMOS ditital logic devices and circuits @ CNR-IMM (Lab. MDM) Molecular beam epitaxy apparatus for growth, functionalization amd in situ characterization of graphene like materials in situ SPM and spectroscopic diagnostic tools dielectric capping for prototypical MOS-like devices Slide 4/15 CNR- IMM- Agrate

9 IMM Atom_based Nanotechnology workshop, 19 th January 2011, Arcetri (FI), Italy Synthesis methods Mechanical exfoliation of highly oriented pyrolityc graphite (HOPG) High material quality: Low defects density, High mobility Small sheets; Low production yield Epitaxial graphene on SiC by controlled graphitisation of the surface at high temperatures (1500 –2000 °C) in inert gas ambient Large area (wafer scale) sheets on semiconductor substrate Substrate cost Can be placed on different substrates: SiO 2, SiC, high-k dielectrics Chemical exfoliation of highly oriented pyrolityc graphite (HOPG) High production yield Small sheets; Defects Can be placed on different substrates: SiO 2, SiC, high-k dielectrics growth methods GRAPHENE at IMM-CT: highlights More than 30 papers since 2005 by two groups (theory & Exp.) Slide 5/15 S. Sonde, F. Giannazzo, V. Raineri, and E. Rimini, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 868 (2009). S. Sonde, F. Giannazzo, V. Raineri, and E. Rimini, Phys. Status Solidi B, 1–4 (2010) S. Sonde, F. Giannazzo, V. Raineri, R. Yakimova, J.-R. Huntzinger, A. Tiberj, and J. Camassel, Phys. Rev. B 80, 241406(R) (2009).

10 IMM Atom_based Nanotechnology workshop, 19 th January 2011, Arcetri (FI), Italy Synthesis methods Mechanical exfoliation of highly oriented pyrolityc graphite (HOPG) High material quality: Low defects density, High mobility Small sheets; Low production yield Epitaxial graphene on SiC by controlled graphitisation of the surface at high temperatures (1500 –2000 °C) in inert gas ambient Large area (wafer scale) sheets on semiconductor substrate Substrate cost Can be placed on different substrates: SiO 2, SiC, high-k dielectrics Chemical exfoliation of highly oriented pyrolityc graphite (HOPG) High production yield Small sheets; Defects Can be placed on different substrates: SiO 2, SiC, high-k dielectrics growth methods GRAPHENE at IMM-CT: highlights More than 30 papers since 2005 by two groups (theory & Exp.) Slide 5/15 S. Sonde, F. Giannazzo, V. Raineri, and E. Rimini, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 868 (2009). S. Sonde, F. Giannazzo, V. Raineri, and E. Rimini, Phys. Status Solidi B, 1–4 (2010) S. Sonde, F. Giannazzo, V. Raineri, R. Yakimova, J.-R. Huntzinger, A. Tiberj, and J. Camassel, Phys. Rev. B 80, 241406(R) (2009). BEYOND STATE OF THE ART First EG on 4H-SiC off axis Patended substrates High mobility

11 IMM Atom_based Nanotechnology workshop, 19 th January 2011, Arcetri (FI), Italy GRAPHENE at IMM-CT : Highlights Transfer to substrates: methods and functionalization Slide 6/15 Silanization of SiO 2 Phosphonization of SiO 2 Transfer by nanoimprinting

12 IMM Atom_based Nanotechnology workshop, 19 th January 2011, Arcetri (FI), Italy GRAPHENE at IMM-CT : Highlights Transfer to substrates: methods and functionalization Slide 6/15 Silanization of SiO 2 Phosphonization of SiO 2 Transfer by nanoimprinting CHALLENGES From nanoscale properties to large area EG on 4H-SiC (150 mm) Functionalisation (to control the G carrier concentration, to control the G layer transfer to other substrates)

13 IMM Atom_based Nanotechnology workshop, 19 th January 2011, Arcetri (FI), Italy Quantum capacitance and local transport GRAPHENE at IMM-CT : Highlights Q depl SCM Electronic Module + V g n + SiC n - SiC A eff Q scr Graphene Q depl Under the influence of electric field, 2DEG manifests itself as a capacitor, Quantum capacitor. + V g Gnd CqCq C depl ΔV gr ΔV depl SiO SiC l eff A eff F. Giannazzo, S. Sonde, V. Raineri, E. Rimini, Nano Lett. 9, 23 (2009). F. Giannazzo, S. Sonde, V. Raineri, and E. Rimini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 263109 (2009). Slide 7/15

14 IMM Atom_based Nanotechnology workshop, 19 th January 2011, Arcetri (FI), Italy GRAPHENE at IMM-CT : Highlights The role of interfaces on mobility Nci_EG=2.5x10 11 cm -2 23000 cm 2 V -1 s -1 Epitaxial graphene Slide 8/15 Giannazzo F, Roccaforte F, Raineri V, Liotta SF, Europhys. Lett., 74, 686 (2006) S. Sonde, F. Giannazzo, C. Vecchio, V. Raineri, E. Rimini, App. Phys. Lett., 97, 132101 (2010) Also selected for publication on Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology.

15 IMM Atom_based Nanotechnology workshop, 19 th January 2011, Arcetri (FI), Italy GRAPHENE at IMM-CT : Highlights From thin to fat FET Atomic force microscopy 4H-SiC (0001) n + 4H-SiC (0001) n - EG HSQ Pt Gate Drain Source L g =10 m Optical microscopy Slide 9/15 F. Giannazzo, C. Vecchio, V. Raineri, E. Rimini, submitted

16 IMM Atom_based Nanotechnology workshop, 19 th January 2011, Arcetri (FI), Italy Transfer characteristics Hole conduction Dirac point Output characteristics 0V < V D < 10V 0V < V G < 14V STEP = 1V Transconductance Ambipolar transport Electron conduction GRAPHENE at IMM-CT : Highlights fat FET characteristics Slide 10/15

17 IMM Atom_based Nanotechnology workshop, 19 th January 2011, Arcetri (FI), Italy Slide 11/15 Mapping distribution GRAPHENE at IMM-CT : challenges

18 IMM Atom_based Nanotechnology workshop, 19 th January 2011, Arcetri (FI), Italy CHALLENGES Physical model nano- macro properties New devices architectures Slide 11/15 Mapping distribution GRAPHENE at IMM-CT : challenges Buried gate New devices architectures

19 IMM Atom_based Nanotechnology workshop, 19 th January 2011, Arcetri (FI), Italy GRAPHENE at IMM-CT: ELECTRON STRUCTURE AND COHERENT TRANSPORT IN CONFINED GRAPHENE Methodology Electronic StructureQuantum transport Ab initioSemiempirical Density functional theory, LDA and GGA exchange- correlation functionals, GAUSSIAN and SIESTA codes Tight-Binding (TB): single π-orbital Hamiltonian, further parameterizations based on DFT Extended Hückel Theory (EHT): real-orbital basis, parameters from DFT calculations or experimental data Transport Non-equilibrium Greens functions methods coupled to Landauer-Büttiker approach Electrostatics 3D Poisson solver, computational box with Neumann/Dirichlet boundary conditions Slide 12/15

20 IMM Atom_based Nanotechnology workshop, 19 th January 2011, Arcetri (FI), Italy the simulation approach to transport properties Previous activity overview Computation apparatus: self-consistent transport calculations Atomistic modeling of disorder in graphene based systems: from the single defect/impurity to a finite density of scattering centers GNR-metal junction Epitaxial GNR on SiC(0001): role of interface states Focus on defective and functionalized epitaxial GNR Complete device simulation At CNR-IMM Catania In house programming codes for electronic structure and quantum transport based on atomistic semi- empirical Hamiltonians (Extended Hückel and Tight-Binding), NEGF- Poisson scheme Full-device simulation for 10 3 – 10 7 atoms (in the case of GNRs) Atomistic treatment of local alterations in the atomic structure, disorder, etc. Multiscale approach (electronic Hamiltonians calibrated or evaluated by first-principles calculations) GRAPHENE at IMM : Highlights Slide 13/15 A. La Magna et al, PRB 80, 195413 (2009) I. Deretzis and A. La Magna, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 063211 (2009) I. Deretzis et al., J. Phys. Cond. Mat. 22, 095504 (2010) I. Dertzis et al., Phys. Rev. B 81, 085427 (2010) I. Deretzis et al., Phys. Rev. B 82, 161413(R) (2010) I. D. and A. La Magna, accepted Appl. Phys. Lett.

21 IMM Atom_based Nanotechnology workshop, 19 th January 2011, Arcetri (FI), Italy IMM - CT From nanoscale properties to large area (150 mm wafers) Physical model considering nano-properties for macro-effects New devices architectures Functionalisation (to control the G carrier concentration, to control the G layer transfer to other substrates) Computational transport properties: multi scale approach Slide 14/15 IMM - Agrate Memories and logics in graphene Graphene-like materials IMM - Bo see coming presentations for details Challenges

22 IMM Atom_based Nanotechnology workshop, 19 th January 2011, Arcetri (FI), Italy Thank you for your attention Catania: Antonino La Magna* Giuseppe Angilella** Ioannis Deretzis*** Raffaella Lo Nigro* Filippo Giannazzo* Vito Raineri* Emanuele Rimini** Sushant Sonde*** Carmelo Vecchio **** Agrate: Marco Fanciulli** Alessandro Molle* Sabina Spiga* Slide 15/15 * Ricercatori CNR di ruolo ** Associati *** Post-doc **** Dottorandi Bologna: Vittorio Morandi* Luca Ortolani*** Rita Rizzoli* Giulio Paolo Veronese* Alberto Roncaglia*


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