Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 The Dual-Worker Family: The Real American Revolution."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 13 The Dual-Worker Family: The Real American Revolution
Chapter Outline Women and the Economy Making the Decision to Become a Two Earner Family: The Wife Goes to Work Child Care and Parental Leave Employers, Pregnant Employees, and Working Mothers
Chapter Outline Marital Satisfaction in the Two-Earner Family Work and Family: Sources of Conflict Jobs, Occupations, and Careers Dual-Career Families
Women in the Workplace 1 in 2 workers are women. 4 in 5 mothers of school-age children work for pay. 2 in 5 working women are managers or professionals. 1 in 5 working women have administrative support jobs.
Women in the Workplace 1 in 2 people who work more than one job are women. 1 in 2 working women provide half or more of their household income. 7 in 10 married working mothers work more than 40 hrs/week. More than 58% of workers paid by temp agencies are women.
Women in the Workplace 72% of part-time workers are female. 3 in 10 working women work evenings, weekends, or some combination. 3 women in 5 work at or below the minimum wage. Women’s presence in once male dominated professions such as medicine, dentistry, and law increased significantly between 1990 and 2000.
Married Women in the Workplace 1. The inflationary pressures of the American economy and expectations of a rising standard of living combined to bring many women into the workforce. 2. Since World War II, real wages for men and women have increased dramatically. (Real wages are earnings adjusted for inflation.)
Married Women in the Workplace 3. The number and kinds of jobs available to women have increased tremendously. 4. Declining birthrates have contributed to the increased numbers of women working outside the home. 5. Increasing education has contributed to women’s working outside the home.
Married Women in the Workplace 6. Attitudes about the role of the woman in the family have changed greatly during this century. 7. In the future, the lower birthrate will reduce the number of future workers available.
Women’s Share of Higher Ed Degrees 19852002 Undergraduate53%58% Bachelor’s51%56% Master’s50%59% Doctorate34%46%
Top 10 Occupations for Women, 2000 1. Secretaries 2. Elementary and middle school teachers 3. Registered nurses 4. Cashiers 5. Retail sales persons
Top 10 Occupations for Women, 2000 6. Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks 7. Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides 8. Customer service representatives 9. Child-care workers 10. Waiters and waitresses
Median Income of Families with Children, under 18 Family 1990 (2001 dollars) 2001 Married White Black Hispanic $54,187 56,952 46,912 36,081 $65,203 71,102 55,734 40,541
Median Income of Families with Children, under 18 Family 1990 (2001 dollars) 2001 Mother-only White Black Hispanic 17,194 19,526 13,535 13,319 21,997 31,879 19,086 19,021
Median Income of Families with Children, under 18 Family 1990 (2001 dollars) 2001 Father-only White Black Hispanic 33,110 34,366 27,008 27,284 31,932 32,933 28,645 27,385
Different Work Patterns for Women A. The woman works for a few years until she marries and has children, then settles into the homemaker job for the rest of her life. This was the predominant pattern for Caucasian, middle-class women until World War II. Although many women still follow this pattern, their proportion is declining.
Different Work Patterns for Women B. Women follow the same career pattern as men; that is, they remain in the paid labor force continuously and full time, through the years between school and retirement. Women most likely to follow this pattern are women without children, African American women, and women in professional and managerial jobs.
Different Work Patterns for Women C. A woman works until she has children, then stays home for a certain amount of time (perhaps 5 to 10 years), and returns to the labor force on a basis that will not conflict with her remaining family responsibilities.
Different Work Patterns for Women D. The woman remains in the labor force continuously, with short time-outs to have children. She combines family duties equally with work responsibilities.
Home Work, Division of Time Meal preparation and cleanup, about 30% Care of family members, 15-25% Clothing and regular house care, 15%
Supermoms The working mother still does most of the housework. Although men are doing more, they still do not carry their fair share of household and child-care work when their wives work.
Childcare and Family Leave Since 1975, the labor force participation of mothers with children under 18 has grown from 47 to 72%. The Family and Medical Leave Act was passed in 1993 granting workers up to 12 weeks unpaid leave for family emergencies.
Child-care Arrangement for Preschool Children Provider % of Children in care Relatives41 Child-care centers30 Family day care17 Child goes to work with mom6 In-home caregiver5 Other arrangements1
Relationship between Family and Work Many employers feel that women with children are not as likely to make the same commitments to their careers as men are. Better leave policies, more flexible hours, job sharing, on-site childcare facilities, and the increased use of the home as a workplace are all ways to improve the relationship between family and work.
Attitude and Work Basic Attitude Toward Work Basic Additional Value 1. InterruptionShort-run income 2. Job Long-term income; some work- oriented values (working to live) 3. Occupation Exercise and mastery of gratifying skills; some satisfaction of achievement- oriented values
Attitude and Work Basic Attitude Toward Work Basic Additional Value 4. CareerParticipating in an important activity; work-oriented, achievement oriented, advancement-oriented values 5. VocationSelf-identification and self- fulfillment 6. MissionSingle-minded focus on achievement or advancement
Characteristics of Career Workers 1. Long-term commitment, including a period of formal training 2. Continuity (one moves to increasingly higher levels, if successful) 3. Mobility, to follow career demands
1. The Family and Medical Leave Act, passed in 1993, includes which of the following? a) Maternity leaves b) Elder care c) Child-care leaves d) All of the above
Answer: d The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 includes maternity leave, elder care and child-care leaves.
2. The inflationary pressures of the American economy and expectations of a rising standard of living have combined to influence a) More women to join the workforce b) Less women to join the workforce c) More dual career families d) None of these
Answer: a The inflationary pressures of the American economy and expectations of a rising standard of living have combined to influence more women to join the workforce.
3. According to the text, what arrangement is the most common provider of child-care for preschool children? a) Child-care centers b) Family day care c) In-home caregiver d) Relatives
Answer: d According to the text, relatives are the most common providers of childcare for preschool aged children.