Presentation on theme: "As you observe the following pictures think about this… Have the landforms undergone changes? What do you think caused the changes? How long do you think."— Presentation transcript:
As you observe the following pictures think about this… Have the landforms undergone changes? What do you think caused the changes? How long do you think the changes may have taken? Were the changes constructive or destructive?
Notes: Rocks and Weathering What breaks down rocks? Erosion – is the process of wearing down and carrying away rocks. (breaking of rocks into smaller pieces and the removal of rock particles by wind, water, ice, or gravity) Weathering – is the process that breaks down rock and other substances. (heat, cold, water, ice, and gases all contribute) Both involve the breaking down of rocks into smaller pieces, but erosion also involves the removal of rocks once they are broken. Erosion and weathering change Earth’s surface continuously, or without stopping. They are destructive forces that act to break and wear down the surface.
What causes weathering? Mechanical Weathering – rock is physically broken down into smaller pieces Agents of Mechanical Weathering:
Name the agents of mechanical weathering: Plant Growth Release of Pressure Freezing and Thawing Abrasion Animal Actions
What causes weathering? Chemical Weathering – the process that breaks down rock through chemical changes Agents of Chemical Weathering: WATER Water weathers some rocks by dissolving it. Water also carries other substances that dissolve or break down rock, including oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other chemicals LIVING ORGANISMS As a plant’s roots grow, they produce weak acids that slowly dissolve rock around the roots. Lichens – plantlike organisms that grow on rocks- also produce weak acids ACID RAIN Rainwater is naturally slightly acidic. Burning coal, oil, and gas for energy can pollute the air with sulfur, carbon, and nitrogen compounds. These compounds react with water vapor in clouds, making acids that are stronger than normal rainwater. These acids mix with raindrops and fall as acid rain. This causes very rapid chemical weathering of rock. OXYGEN The oxygen gas in air is an important cause of chemical weathering. Iron combines with oxygen in the presence of water in a process called oxidation. The product of iron oxidation is rust. Rust makes rocks soft and crumbly and gives it a red or brown color. CARBON DIOXIDE Another gas found in air. Causes chemical weathering when it dissolves in water. The result is carbonic acid. Carbonic acid easily weathers some kinds of rocks, such as marble and limestone.
LET’S REVI EW: Mechanical – means by physical processes (like a physical change – a change in size, shape, state; the change does not alter the makeup of the substance) Chemical – suggests processes related to chemical reactions (like a chemical change – changes resulting from chemical reactions, in which substances change into other substances) Chemical and mechanical weathering often work together. Chemical weathering creates holes of soft spots in rock, so the rock breaks apart more easily. As rocks break into pieces, more surface area is Exposed to chemical weathering.
How fast does weathering occur? The most important factors that determine the rate at which weathering occurs are the type of rock and climate. Type of Rock Minerals in the rock determine how fast it weathers. Rocks weather faster if they are made up of minerals that dissolve easily. Some rocks will weather faster if they are permeable – full of tiny, connected air spaces that allow water to seep through it. As water seeps through the spaces it carries chemicals that dissolve the rock. Climate Climate is the average weather conditions in an area. Both chemical and mechanical weathering occur faster in wet climates. Rainfall provides water for chemical changes and freezing and thawing. Chemical reactions occur faster at higher temperatures. So chemical weathering occurs more quickly where the climate is both hot and wet.