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SOLVING THE CRISIS IN DARFUR – EU AND INTERNATIONAL RESPONSES Pekka Haavisto 5 April 2006 Director´s Forum, Woodrow Wilson Center.

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Presentation on theme: "SOLVING THE CRISIS IN DARFUR – EU AND INTERNATIONAL RESPONSES Pekka Haavisto 5 April 2006 Director´s Forum, Woodrow Wilson Center."— Presentation transcript:

1 SOLVING THE CRISIS IN DARFUR – EU AND INTERNATIONAL RESPONSES Pekka Haavisto 5 April 2006 Director´s Forum, Woodrow Wilson Center

2 What are the goals in Darfur? End of conflict Security, safe return of IDP´s and refugees Disarmament, reconstruction, reconciliation Human rights Freedom of expression, free press Census (to prepare the elections) Forming of political parties Free elections End of (inofficial) security organisations Transparency in administration and budgeting

3 Importance of Sudan Biggest country in Africa 40 million inhabitants Arab and African population Muslim, Christian and traditional religions Oil resources

4 Sudan has many neighbours

5 Three conflict areas in Sudan North-South Civil War 1983-2005 –Peace Agreement in Naivasha 2005 –Slow implemenation of CPA Conflict in Darfur –Peace talks in Abuja, Nigeria –Violence continuing on the ground Eastern Sudan –Rebel movements supported by Eritrea –Beja Congress, Free Lions

6 North-South peace agreement 21 years of war 1,5 million casualties, 4 million refugees Comprehensive Peace Agreement –Wealth sharing, including oil revenues –Power sharing, e.g. First Vice-President for Southerners –Security, JIU and SPLA

7 Tragic beginning for the peace First Vice-President John Garang dies in July 2005

8 CPA challenges Presence of Southern Sudan in Khartoum Transparency of oil income Forming of Joint Integrated Units Referendum in 2011 Safe return of IDP´s and refugees Reconstruction (or construction)

9 Elements in Darfur conflict Population in villages versus nomads Government of Sudan has armed arab nomads, Janjaweed GoS and Janjaweed joint attacks against villages 2 million IDP´s/refugees

10 Darfur is the size of France

11 The Challenges of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement Visibility of South-Sudan in Khartoum Transparency of the oil revenues Forming of the common army Refrendum in 2011 Attitudes Safe return of the refugees and IDP’s to South Sudan

12 The Darfur Conflict Traditional conflict between farmers and nomads The Arab-nomads, Janjaweeds, armed by the Government of Sudan (GoS) The attack by the GoS and Janjaweeds to the villages 2 million refugees

13 Assistance by the International Community Massive humanitarian operation Food and medicine assistance to the camps The peascetalks led by the African Union in Abuja, Nigeria African Union peacekeeping operation with 7000 men EU’s support to African Union

14 EU Support to Darfur EU humanitarian assiatance to Darfur EUR 289 million  EUR 136 million directed through ECHO, including EUR 39.5 million for refugees in Chad  EUR 153 million for food aid/food security

15 EU support to AMIS EC's assistance to AMIS has so far amounted to EUR 162 million 4 Military Observers, 29 CivPol in Darfur 15 Military Experts deployed in Addis

16 EU police supporting the African Union police operation in Darfur

17 African Union Peacekeepers in Darfur

18 African Union AMIS helicopter Masking attempt by the Govenment of Sudan

19 Darfurian rebel movements JEM (Justice and Equality Movement) –Khalil Ibrahim SLM/A (Sudan Liberation Movement/Army) –Minni Minawi –Abdul Wahid

20 Negotiations with SLA rebels in Darfur

21 Janjaweed Arab nomads armed by the Government of Sudan Attacks to the Darfur villages with the GoS airforce Human rights violations

22 Violations against Human Rights and War Crimes Genocide or not? UN has listed 51 potential criminals UN sanctions against individuals? ICC, International Criminal Court (5 leaders from Lord Resistance Army, LRA listed)

23 Refugee situation 2 million refugees in the camps in Darfur Return to villages often impossible In camps there are schools and medical care Camps as recruitment area of the rebels Urbanization process

24 Demostrations agains the UN in Nyala, Darfur

25 Peace talks in Abuja African Union in lead (Amb. Salim Ahmed Salim) EU supporting 3 sectors: –wealth –power –security

26 Abuja talks: Wealth sharing Draft protocol almost ready Pending issues include: –Compensations (individual?) –Allocation formula –Percentages

27 Abuja talks: Power sharing Region (3 states or 1 region) Borders (1.1.1956 boundaries) Presidency (Vice-President) Representation in Khartoum State Ministers / Parliamentarias Darurian representation in civil service

28 Abuja talks: Security I Enhanced Humanitarian Cease- Fire Agreement: Disengagement (maps of areas of control) Redeployment (areas where troops can be monitored by AMIS) Janjaweed (GoS to have responsibility)

29 Abuja talks: Security II Protection of Civilians (more robust) Security of Humanitarian Supply Routes (demilitarized routes) Bridging Provisions (bridge to final security arrangements, like integration of comabatants, disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR)

30 Abuja talks: Challenges Disarming Janjaweed (GoS) Zones of Redeployment (rebels) Controlling IDP camps (GoS) Sudan and Chad border (GoS) Merging of the rebel troops to Sudan Armed Forces (GoS) Darfur-Darfur talks (GoS, rebels)

31 Sudan challenges Implementation of the North-South Peace-agreement New areas of conclict: East, Lord Resistance Army LRA Darfur Peace-agreement and its implementation, UN operation Equal sharing of the wealth

32 What can we do? Humanitarian Assistance Development cooperation NGO’s EU’s support to AU and UN peacekeeping and police operations EU’s support to Abuja Process Pressure to the parties to comply with peace agreements

33 Thank you.

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