10 The EarOuter Ear: visible part of the ear; channels the sound waves through the auditory canal to the eardrum.Middle Ear: the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea.Inner Ear: innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs.
11 Middle EarHammer, anvil, and stirrup: a piston in the middle ear made up of containing three tiny bones that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea’s oval window (membrane).Eardrum: a tight membrane that vibrates with the waves.
12 The Inner EarCochlea: a coiled, bony fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses. (Looks like a snail!)The vibrations on the cochlea’s oval window cause vibrations that move the fluid in the tube.
13 The Inner EarBasilar membrane: lined with hair cells that are bent by the vibrations from sounds and triggers impulses in the adjacent nerve fibers that converge to form the auditory nerve.The neural messages travel via the thalamus to the temporal lobe’s auditory cortex – and we hear!
14 The EarSemicircular canals: three fluid- filled bony channels in the inner ear. They provide information about orientation to the brain to help maintain balance.Auditory nerve: axons of neurons in the cochlea converge transmitting sound messages through the medulla, pons, and thalamus to the auditory cortex of the temporal lobe.
18 Determining PitchHow can you discriminate small differences in sound frequency or pitch?Place theory: we hear different pitches because different sound waves trigger activity at different places along the cochlea’s basilar membrane.Works best with high pitched sounds.
19 Determining PitchWaves that peak near the close end are perceived as high-pitched.Waves that peak near the far end are interpreted as low-pitched.
20 Determining PitchFrequency theory: we sense pitch by the basilar membrane vibrating at the same rate as the sound.Frequency theory explains how you hear low-pitched tones.Place theory explains how we sense high pitches and frequency theory explains how we sense low pitches.
21 Locating SoundsSound localization: the process by which you determine the location of a sound.With ears on both sides of our head, you can locate a sound source.The side closest to the source of the sound hears it louder.
23 Locating SoundsUsing parallel processing, your brain processes both intensity and timing differences to determine where the sound is.It is hardest to locate a sound directly in front, behind, above, or below you because the sound hits both ears at the same time.
24 Hearing LossConduction hearing loss: loss of hearing that results when the eardrum is punctured or any of the tiny bones in middle ear lose their ability to vibrate. A hearing aid may restore hearing.Nerve (sensorineural) deafness: loss of hearing that results from damage to the cochlea, hair cells, or auditory neurons. Cochlear implants may restore some hearing.