23 Modern Industrial Park, China Notice the lack of smokestacks and visible pollution
24 large industries are often next to bodies of water for cheap transportation or to use in processing steel mills, oil refineries, cement plantsalso because of noise, smells and pollution located away from residential areas
25 older factories were also built near railways so raw materials and finished goods could be transportedalso they were close to residential areas so workers could walkmost are now obsolete and have been torn down
26 modern industrial areas are located away from residential areas in “industrial parks”, with special services providedlocated close to highways for truck transportation
27 Residentialall places where people live from single family homes to huge apartment towers40% of developed land in many cities“residential density” is an important characteristic
32 low density: detached houses on relatively large lots medium density: 20 to 80 units per hectare - low rise apartment buildings and town houseshigh density: more than 80 units per hectare - high rise apartment buildings
37 downtown and on major transportation routes leads to higher land values and therefore high density housing (because they generate enough money to pay for the land costs)eg., Harbourfront
38 the other factor is the age of the neighbourhood neighbourhoods before 1930 tend to have higher densitiesbecause people walked or took streetcars, driveways or wide streets for cars were not necessarythis led to narrow lots and compact neighbourhoods
39 Working Class Neighbourhood: Queens, New York City
40 Commercialonly 5% of land for retailing, wholesaling, offices, and servicesreally important to the economytwo types: ribbons and centres
41 ribbons are along transportation routes centres have stores in a cluster, around a parking lot often, and also near a major transportation route
42 A typical strip mall. Quick convenient. Automobile based clientele.
43 commercial centres can be grouped in five different categories: convenience, neighbourhood, community, regional and CBD, or central business districtat each level more choice of services and products are offeredsee description on pages
44 Decline of the CBD most important factor for many towns and cities shopping centres and offices in suburbs draw shoppers and tenants away
45 Why?downtown buildings old and out of datethe CBD hard to reach by car: roads clogged; parking expensive and hard to findrents cheaper in suburbs and therefore products/services too
50 expressways: large volumes of traffic long distances quickly; limited access (interchanges) arterial roads: moderate volumes, shorter distances; link local roads to expresswayscommercial ribbons develop along arterial roads
51 local roads are smaller and carry smaller volumes of people between peoples’ homes and arterial roadslocal roads tend to be either on a grid or a garden pattern (see Fig. 21-5, page 251)other transportation land uses: parking lots and airports
53 Other land usesinstitutional: schools, hospitals, governments, places of worshipvacant: unused land, either previously or never usedopen space: developed parks, playgrounds, golf courses, cemeteries
55 Factors Affecting Land Use Patterns Four factors affect urban land use patterns: land value, zoning, technology, and climate.
56 Land Value generally land values are highest in most accessible areas eg., CBD, along major transportation routes, especially intersections
57 land uses that produce the highest income per unit of land occupy the most expensive land ie., tall office buildings and high density housingYonge at major crossroads like St. Clair, Eglinton, Sheppard - all with tall buildings
59 Zoninggovernments (mainly municipal) pass laws which restricts the land use in certain areas in order to avoid conflictsSee Fig on Page 258 for a zoning map.
60 Technologyland use reflects the technology that existed when the land was developedeg., residential patterns in cities before the Depression and after WWII
61 since WWII near universal ownership and use of car has changed the face of urban areas built since then: wider arterial roads; shopping and work areas with own parking; truck transport and the rise of the expressway
64 Climate Inside and Outside environment Winter-city concept Today urban planners are taking into account cold temperatures, wind, ice, snow, and long winters.Inside and Outside environmentWinter-city conceptIndoor shopping mallsBus shelters, sidewalk barriers etc.
65 The Blue Print for “Path” The Blue Print for “Path”. Connecting Toronto’s Underground Shopping, Businesses and Services – over 27 kms longblogbeneath.files.wordpress.com/2009/12/tun.jpg