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Presentation on theme: "URBAN LAND USE."— Presentation transcript:


2 Where are the cities??


4 Urban Land Use Land use patterns in cities do not develop by chance. They are affected by decisions people make based upon their work, their type of home and what they have to spend their money on.

5 Urban Sprawl - Florida

6 Tokyo Japan - Sprawl

7 Worlds’ Tallest Structures

8 Worlds’ Tallest Buildings

9 Skyscraper under construction in Dubai
Soon to not be the world’s tallest building.

10 Burj Khalifa, Dubai, U.A.E.

11 Worlds’ Tallest Structures, revised

12 Worlds’ Tallest Structures, revised (again)

13 The Kingdom Tower, Jedda, Saudi Arabia

14 Freedom Tower World Trade Center New York, U.S.A.

15 Kibera Slum, Nairobi from the air.

16 Toronto Canada

17 Do you recognize this place?

18 Types of Land Use All land use in an urban place can be classified into one of five major groups: industrial, residential, commercial, transportation, and other

19 Industrial important land use for cities jobs taxes
about 11% of all urban land grouped according to type of industry and nature of transportation used




23 Modern Industrial Park, China
Notice the lack of smokestacks and visible pollution

24 large industries are often next to bodies of water for cheap transportation or to use in processing
steel mills, oil refineries, cement plants also because of noise, smells and pollution located away from residential areas

25 older factories were also built near railways so raw materials and finished goods could be transported also they were close to residential areas so workers could walk most are now obsolete and have been torn down

26 modern industrial areas are located away from residential areas in “industrial parks”, with special services provided located close to highways for truck transportation

27 Residential all places where people live from single family homes to huge apartment towers 40% of developed land in many cities “residential density” is an important characteristic


29 Malibu California

30 New Urbanism

31 Slums known as ‘Favelas’ in
South America

32 low density: detached houses on relatively large lots
medium density: 20 to 80 units per hectare - low rise apartment buildings and town houses high density: more than 80 units per hectare - high rise apartment buildings

33 Medium Density: Townhouse / Condominiums

34 The Projects – New York City

35 two factors affect density of residential housing:
the first factor is land value cheaper land on the outskirts of the city results in low density housing - more single family dwellings the suburbs


37 downtown and on major transportation routes leads to higher land values and therefore high density housing (because they generate enough money to pay for the land costs) eg., Harbourfront

38 the other factor is the age of the neighbourhood
neighbourhoods before 1930 tend to have higher densities because people walked or took streetcars, driveways or wide streets for cars were not necessary this led to narrow lots and compact neighbourhoods

39 Working Class Neighbourhood: Queens, New York City

40 Commercial only 5% of land for retailing, wholesaling, offices, and services really important to the economy two types: ribbons and centres

41 ribbons are along transportation routes
centres have stores in a cluster, around a parking lot often, and also near a major transportation route

42 A typical strip mall. Quick convenient. Automobile based clientele.

43 commercial centres can be grouped in five different categories: convenience, neighbourhood, community, regional and CBD, or central business district at each level more choice of services and products are offered see description on pages

44 Decline of the CBD most important factor for many towns and cities
shopping centres and offices in suburbs draw shoppers and tenants away

45 Why? downtown buildings old and out of date the CBD hard to reach by car: roads clogged; parking expensive and hard to find rents cheaper in suburbs and therefore products/services too


47 It is the heart of a city. CBD is working hard to improve itself, for example CN tower, Skydome, Air Canada Centre, Yonge and Dundas - Bring the people back downtown. Page 254 has a good description.

48 Transportation nearly 25% of urban land for roads, highways railroads and electricity transmission corridors roadways grouped into three categories based upon size


50 expressways: large volumes of traffic long distances quickly; limited access (interchanges)
arterial roads: moderate volumes, shorter distances; link local roads to expressways commercial ribbons develop along arterial roads

51 local roads are smaller and carry smaller volumes of people between peoples’ homes and arterial roads local roads tend to be either on a grid or a garden pattern (see Fig. 21-5, page 251) other transportation land uses: parking lots and airports


53 Other land uses institutional: schools, hospitals, governments, places of worship vacant: unused land, either previously or never used open space: developed parks, playgrounds, golf courses, cemeteries


55 Factors Affecting Land Use Patterns
Four factors affect urban land use patterns: land value, zoning, technology, and climate.

56 Land Value generally land values are highest in most accessible areas
eg., CBD, along major transportation routes, especially intersections

57 land uses that produce the highest income per unit of land occupy the most expensive land
ie., tall office buildings and high density housing Yonge at major crossroads like St. Clair, Eglinton, Sheppard - all with tall buildings


59 Zoning governments (mainly municipal) pass laws which restricts the land use in certain areas in order to avoid conflicts See Fig on Page 258 for a zoning map.

60 Technology land use reflects the technology that existed when the land was developed eg., residential patterns in cities before the Depression and after WWII

61 since WWII near universal ownership and use of car has changed the face of urban areas built since then: wider arterial roads; shopping and work areas with own parking; truck transport and the rise of the expressway



64 Climate Inside and Outside environment Winter-city concept
Today urban planners are taking into account cold temperatures, wind, ice, snow, and long winters. Inside and Outside environment Winter-city concept Indoor shopping malls Bus shelters, sidewalk barriers etc.

65 The Blue Print for “Path”
The Blue Print for “Path”. Connecting Toronto’s Underground Shopping, Businesses and Services – over 27 kms long


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