Presentation on theme: "Canada at the Turn of the 20 th Century (1900-1914) 1.2 – The Effects of Technology."— Presentation transcript:
Canada at the Turn of the 20 th Century (1900-1914) 1.2 – The Effects of Technology
INDUSTRIALIZATION The Industrial Revolution began in the 1700s in Western Europe (Britain) with the invention of machines powered by steam. This improved upon previous sources of energy for production (muscle power of people and animals). More products could be produced faster. Physical strength was no longer as important, intellect was better for business. Coal (late 1700s)and oil (1800s) would be developed later as fuel sources. As time went by, new items and machines were being produced at a greater rate, eventually reducing their price for the consumer.
In farming, tractors and machines were replacing farm help, leading many people to move to the cities to work in factories, leading to a huge boom in urbanization. Jethro Tull (1674-1740) was an British agriculturalist who developed and perfected the seed drill. This invention allowed much faster planting of crops, thus speeding up production and reducing required labour.
MASS SOCIETY Technological changes created by the industrial revolution would lead to a “mass society” Mass communication through telephone, radio and telegraph The workforce became increasingly literate and newspapers became mass produced Mass transport through the use of bicycle but was quickly replaced by motor cars
Mass Society Tea and bacon was mass produced for markets Food could now be frozen, canned and shipped worldwide New jobs were created thanks to mass production – They had long hours though – 7:30am to 9:15pm Mass entertainment – By 1909, 20 million people a week were watching films – Football leagues were created
Effects of the Great Demand Two new railway lines were created and subsidized by Laurier’s government – Grand Trunk Pacific: from Prince Rupert, BC to Winnipeg; linked to the National Transcontinental Railway from Winnipeg to Moncton – Canadian Northern Railway: from Vancouver to Montreal; was an alternative to the Canadian Pacific Railway 1 in 3 Canadian workers at this time worked with the railway – Laying tracks, producing machinery, etc.
Effects of the Great Demand By World War I the railways were in financial trouble so the government took over both the Grand Trunk Pacific and Canadian Northern Railways and they became Canadian National Railways (CNR)
Importance of Railways Railway was an important form of personal transportation (like cars today) It was very important for commercial transport – Manufactured goods able to be carried West – Grain was carried east – Seasonal workers were carried West to work on farms – Served cities and industries close to the American border
Importance of Railways Basis for settling the west – Immigrants were carried from ports in the East (Halifax) to western cities and farm communities Brought Americans directly from the US to Canada Provided work for railway workers Industries and towns were created and grew along the rail lines – Grain elevators
The Changing Face of Canada New immigrants brought many changes to Canada – For example, place names Appearance of communities based on ethnic origins of populations – British settlers had churches with steeples; Ukrainian Orthodox churches had onion-shaped domes There was a shift from mostly rural population at Confederation to a large influx into urban centres The growth of cities led to new jobs – Digging sewers, building streetcar tracks, paving streets, etc.
The Changing Face of Canada Two Autonomy Bills formed two new provinces – Introduced by Laurier in 1905 – Created Alberta (named after Queen Victoria’s husband) and Saskatchewan (Native word for its major river) – The new provinces were not given control of their own resources like the other provinces – The majority wanted a secular (non-religious) education system but Laurier allowed minorities to establish their own school if they wanted – In 1912 provinces boundaries extended to where they are now (Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec)
The Changing Face of Canada Complete #s 1, 2, 3, & 5 on p. 31