# Factors Affecting Solubility

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Factors Affecting Solubility
LG: I can explain different factors that affect the solubility of solids and gases

Key Terms Saturated solution: A solution containing the maximum concentration of solute at a given temperature Unsaturated: Less than max quantity Supersaturated: More than max quantity Extra solute can be ‘forced’ to dissolve by changing the pressure

Solubility Categories
Solubility: A property of a solute; the extent to which a substance can dissolve in a solvent Reported as the concentration of the saturated solution ie. Solubility of sodium sulfate at 0°C is 4.76 g/100mL Substances classified as having high solubility or low solubility (solubility table). Technically no substance is insoluble; what it means is that the amount dissolved is not easily detectable. Recall from Double displacement reactions: Solubility Table When two substances are soluble we say they are MISCIBLE and insoluble substances are immiscible

Solubility Curves How many grams of sugar are required to saturate 100mL of water at 40°C? At 80°C? Increases movement of particles at higher temperatures cause solute to mix more thoroughly with solvent. Why would an increase in temperature make a substance more soluble?

Effects on Solubility Temperature Pressure
Liquids and Solids have higher solubility in water at higher temperatures Gases have higher solubility at lower temperature Pressure Liquids and Solids not really affected Gases have higher solubility under higher pressure Mentos in pop. Which will have the bigger explosion, warm pop or cold pop? Why? Pressure: Discuss scuba diving and ‘the bends’ – lower down in the water the pressure is greater which cause more gases to dissolve in the blood (particularly nitrogen). If the diver ascends too quickly, gas bubbles form in the blood as gas comes out of solution. These bubbles can block blood flow in arteries. Where these arteries lead, determines the symptoms that might be observed (headache, blurred vision, joint pain, skin itching, seizures, and breathing problems) They must ascend slowly.

Crystallization Crystallization is the process where excess solute comes out of solution and forms a solid. This can occur when water evaporates from a saturated solution or changes in temperature or pressure alter the solubility of a substance Sodium Acetate demo? – seed crystal

Homework Pg. 397 #1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 10