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S. Cova et al., 2004 POLIMI - Politecnico di Milano, DEI Optoelectronics & Microsystems Lab Bias: well ABOVE breakdown Geiger-mode: its a TRIGGER device!!

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Presentation on theme: "S. Cova et al., 2004 POLIMI - Politecnico di Milano, DEI Optoelectronics & Microsystems Lab Bias: well ABOVE breakdown Geiger-mode: its a TRIGGER device!!"— Presentation transcript:

1 S. Cova et al., 2004 POLIMI - Politecnico di Milano, DEI Optoelectronics & Microsystems Lab Bias: well ABOVE breakdown Geiger-mode: its a TRIGGER device!! Gain: meaningless... or infinite !! Bias: slightly BELOW breakdown Linear-mode: its an AMPLIFIER Gain: limited < 1000 A valanche P hoto D iode S ingle- P hoton A valanche D iode APD SPAD

2 S. Cova et al., 2004 POLIMI - Politecnico di Milano, DEI Optoelectronics & Microsystems Lab for SPAD operation anyway mandatory to avoid local Breakdown, i.e. edge breakdown guard-ring feature microplasmas uniform area, no precipitates etc. but for good SPAD performance..... further requirements!!

3 S. Cova et al., 2004 POLIMI - Politecnico di Milano, DEI Optoelectronics & Microsystems Lab Thin Si SPAD Thick Si SPAD Planar structure typical active region: 20 m diameter 1 m thick Reach-Through structure typical active region: 200 m diameter 30 m thick (PerkinElmer modules SPCM-AQR)

4 S. Cova et al., 2004 POLIMI - Politecnico di Milano, DEI Optoelectronics & Microsystems Lab Passive quenching is simple... Current Pulses Diode Voltage … but suffers from long, not well defined deadtime low max counting rate < 100kc/s photon timing spread et al

5 S. Cova et al., 2004 POLIMI - Politecnico di Milano, DEI Optoelectronics & Microsystems Lab Activequenching…. Active quenching…....provides: short, well-defined deadtime high counting rate > 1 Mc/s good photon timing standard logic output Output Pulses P.Antognetti, S.Cova, A.Longoni IEEE Ispra Nucl.El.Symp. (1975) Euratom Publ. EUR 537e

6 S. Cova et al., 2004 POLIMI - Politecnico di Milano, DEI Optoelectronics & Microsystems Lab Earlier modules in the 80s Compact modules in the 90s Integrated AQC today AQC evolution

7 S. Cova et al., 2004 POLIMI - Politecnico di Milano, DEI Optoelectronics & Microsystems Lab Recent Achievement Microelectronic Single-Photon Detector for studies on Single-Molecule Dynamics collaboration with X. Sunney Xie, Harvard University, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology Reference: H. Yang, G. Luo, P. Karnchanaphanurach, T.M. Louie, I. Rech, S.Cova, L. Xun, and X. Sunney Xie, Single-Molecule Protein Dynamics on Multiple Time Scales Probed by Electron Transfer, SCIENCE, Oct.10, 2003, Vol.302,

8 S. Cova et al., 2004 POLIMI - Politecnico di Milano, DEI Optoelectronics & Microsystems Lab However: the best commercially available Photon Counting Modules DO NOT have adequate performance in terms of picosecond-resolution, high detection efficiency and low-noise Xies idea: to probe Single-Molecule Protein Dynamics by a correlation analysis of fluctuations in real time of fluorescent photon delay with respect to laser excitation

9 S. Cova et al., 2004 POLIMI - Politecnico di Milano, DEI Optoelectronics & Microsystems Lab SPTM Single Photon Timing Module for Single-Molecule Experiments FWHM=60ps High Time-resolution: 60ps Low Dark Counts: down to 5 c/s Quantum Detection Efficiency: 500nm Single power supply +15V Controlled Temperature (Peltier cell) Software controlled settings RS-232 data transmission

10 S. Cova et al., 2004 POLIMI - Politecnico di Milano, DEI Optoelectronics & Microsystems Lab Recent Achievement Ultrasensitive Capillary Electrophoresys (CE) Microchip for DNA fragment separation collaboration with M. Chiari, CNR Inst. of Chemistry and Molecular Recognition, Milano Reference: I. Rech, A. Restelli, S. Cova, M. Ghioni, M. Chiari, ad M. Cretich, Microelectronic Photosensors for Genetic Diagnostic Microsystems Journal of Sensors and Actuators – B, in press 2004

11 S. Cova et al., 2004 POLIMI - Politecnico di Milano, DEI Optoelectronics & Microsystems Lab DNA Fragment separation Electropherogram

12 S. Cova et al., 2004 POLIMI - Politecnico di Milano, DEI Optoelectronics & Microsystems Lab Separation Injection Sample Buffer Waste Chip Electrophoresis

13 S. Cova et al., 2004 POLIMI - Politecnico di Milano, DEI Optoelectronics & Microsystems Lab S/N=35 CE Separation in glass microchip run buffer: TAPS-TRIS 100mM pH 8.5. Sample : 23 mer oligonucleotide labelled with CY 5 Detection limit S/N=3) : 1pM corresponds to < 30 molecules in the injection volume of 50pL

14 S. Cova et al., 2004 POLIMI - Politecnico di Milano, DEI Optoelectronics & Microsystems Lab Recent Achievement Photon-Counting Quadrant Detectors and Electronics for Adaptive Optics Systems of Advanced Telescopes collaboration with D.Bonaccini, ESO European Southern Observatory, Garching, D and R. Biasi, Microgate, Bolzano, I Reference: development of the STRAP (System for Tip-tilt Removal with Avalanche Photodiodes) for the VLT Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile

15 S. Cova et al., 2004 POLIMI - Politecnico di Milano, DEI Optoelectronics & Microsystems Lab 4 SPAD PerkinElmer SLIK ® 4 hybrid AQC 4 E 2 PROM Collaboration: Politecnico di Milano - ESO - Microgate (I) - CNR STRAP Adaptive-Optics System of the VLT Observatory (Chile) of the European Southern Observatory ESO

16 S. Cova et al., 2004 POLIMI - Politecnico di Milano, DEI Optoelectronics & Microsystems Lab Quad- SPAD detection head 4 SPAD PerkinElmer SLIK ® 4 hybrid AQC 4 E 2 PROM Collaboration: Politecnico di Milano - ESO - Microgate (I) - CNR STRAP Adaptive-Optics System of the VLT Observatory (Chile) of the European Southern Observatory ESO

17 S. Cova et al., 2004 POLIMI - Politecnico di Milano, DEI Optoelectronics & Microsystems Lab Recent Achievement Non-invasive testing of ULSI Circuits by Ultrasensitive Picosecond Time-Resolved Measurements of MOSFET Luminescence collaboration with IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY Reference: Stellari F., Zappa F., Cova S., Porta C., Tsang J.C., "High-Speed CMOS Circuit Testing by 50ps Time-Resolved Luminescence Measurements" IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 48, (2001)

18 S. Cova et al., 2004 POLIMI - Politecnico di Milano, DEI Optoelectronics & Microsystems Lab MOSFET hot-carriers luminescence hot-carriers photon emission impact ionization

19 S. Cova et al., 2004 POLIMI - Politecnico di Milano, DEI Optoelectronics & Microsystems Lab Measurement technique

20 S. Cova et al., 2004 POLIMI - Politecnico di Milano, DEI Optoelectronics & Microsystems Lab Single-inverter transition FWHM=250ps [ J.C. Tsang et al., APL, feb ] SPAD PMT

21 S. Cova et al., 2004 POLIMI - Politecnico di Milano, DEI Optoelectronics & Microsystems Lab Many inverters transitions


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