Presentation on theme: "(STD’S) SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES Actually, the “POLITICALLY CORRECT” term is STI – Sexually Transmitted Infection Includes most diseases or “infections”"— Presentation transcript:
(STD’S) SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES Actually, the “POLITICALLY CORRECT” term is STI – Sexually Transmitted Infection Includes most diseases or “infections” transmitted between sex partners who engage in unprotected sex.
Facts about STI’s
Consequences Blindness Bone deformities Mental Retardation Death for infants infected by their mothers Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Infertility Ectopic or tubal pregnancy Cancer of reproductive tract Death
**Ectopic Pregnancy** Egg is unable to work its way quickly enough down the fallopian tube into the uterus. An infection or inflammation of the tube might have partially or entirely blocked it.
**Pelvic Inflammatory Disease** Caused by bacteria (Gonorrhea/Chlamydia) Serious damage to fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus Chronic pain The most common, preventable cause of infertility
WAYS YOU CAN AVOID STI’S Abstinence is the only foolproof way of avoiding a sexually transmitted disease (STD). To abstain = To not engage in sexual intercourse
ALTERNATIVE WAYS YOU CAN AVOID STI’S (FOR THOSE WHO SIMPLY CANNOT WAIT!) Condom use. Although the condom must be worn at each and every sexual encounter, and there must be no exchange of any bodily fluids. Other methods of birth control are not as effective because they do not provide a PHYSICAL barrier.
BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS COMMON FACTS BV develops when balance of good and bacteria in vagina changes Most common vaginal infection Caused by: having multiple sex partners, IUD, not using a condom Myths – cannot get from toilet seats, bedding, swimming pools, touching objects around you “Itchy & Scratchy”
SYMPTOMS OF BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS BV causes an unpleasant fishy or musty vaginal odor, profuse vaginal discharge (usually thin gray, white foamy, watery)that sticks to the vagina walls), and vaginal itching and irritation…usually after sex Diagnosis is made on examination. A pelvic exam is done and a sample of the milky discharge is obtained (pictured is the discharge on the vagina). Under the microscope, the cells of the vagina have a classic appearance in Bacterial Vaginosis
BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS TREATMENT Treatment is with an antibiotic (metronidazole or clindamycin) taken orally or vaginally. Some authorities feel treatment of all sexual partners is crucial in preventing reinfection, though scientific studies have not consistently proven this. PID, pregnancy problems, increased risk of HIV
Genital HERPES COMMON FACTS Genital Herpes is a viral infection of the skin caused by the Herpes Simplex Virus [HSV-1 (mouth) or HSV-2 (genital]. 1 in 4 women & 1 in 8 men get genital herpes…very common.. almost 3 out of 4 people have a history of cold sores caused by the Herpes virus. Only 50% of those infected will have significant enough symptoms to know they are infected.
TYPES OF HERPES HSV-1 is causes mouth and lip rashes (i.e., cold sores & canker sores). HSV-2 causes the genital herpes It has become clear that either strain of this virus can cause either rash, though 75% of genital herpes is caused by HSV-2.
SYMPTOMS OF HERPES Most people are not aware they are infected 1 st outbreak usually happens within 2 weeks of sexual contact w/infected person Symptoms can last 2-3 weeks Itching, burning in genital/anal area Flu-like symptoms w/fever Swollen glands, vaginal discharge Pain in legs, buttocks, or genital area Within a few days, sores show up where virus entered body –On mouth, penis, vagina, on cervix or in urinary passage in men Sores are small red bumps that may turn into blisters or painful open sores SOME PEOPLE HAVE NO SYMPTOMS
LIVING WITH HERPES Unfortunately, the virus then hangs around in the nerves, often causing a reinfection from time to time. Sometimes brought on by severe stress. People that have 1 st outbreak can expect to have 4 or 5 outbreaks within the year Though relatively rare in women who are not having an outbreak at delivery, (infection of the newborn) often causes a whole-body and brain infection in the baby. THERE IS NO CURE HERPES MAY CAUSE A ROLE IN THE SPREAD OF HIV/AIDS
LIVING WITH HERPES You must tell all your sex partners Use condoms Avoid all sexual contact when outbreaks occur Seek treatment immediately
TREATMENT & PREVENTION OF HERPES Like most viral infections, there is no cure for Herpes!!!!! Anti-viral medications have come to market lately and have done a very good job at improving the duration of an outbreak as well as the discomfort. Abstinence, proper condom use (covering all infected skin areas and avoiding sex when sores are present), and vaccination against the herpes virus (experimental).
CHLAMYDIA COMMON FACTS Chlamydia is caused by a bacteria. Chlamydia is currently the most common STI reported in the United States. You get chlamydia from vaginal, anal, or oral sex with an infected person and often get it more than once “reinfected” An infected mother can pass to baby during childbirth
CHLAMYDIA: SIGNS & SYMPTOMS Often referred to as the “Silent” Infection/Disease – 75% of infected women and 50% of men have NO SYMPTOMS Symptoms in Women –Abnormal vaginal discharge –Burning sensation when urinating –Low back & abdominal pain –Nausea, fever –Pain during sex –Bleeding between periods
CHLAMYDIA: SIGNS & SYMPTOMS Symptoms in Men –Discharge from penis –Burning when urinating –Burning and itching around opening of penis –Pain and swelling of the testicles
CHLAMYDIA: SIGNS & SYMPTOMS The chlamydia bacteria can also infect your throat if you have oral sex with an infected partner Often not diagnosed or treated until problems show up. If you think you have it, BOTH you and your sex partner(s) should see a doctor right away…even if you don’t have symptoms.
DIAGNOSIS OF CHLAMYDIA On women, a speculum exam is performed by the doctor; a cervical sample is obtained and sent to the laboratory for analysis. A urine test may also be performed. In men, a smaller swab will be inserted into the penis in order to obtain a sample.
CHLAMYDIA TREATMENT & PREVENTION A number of antibiotics in the Erythromycin family will kill and hence cure Chlamydial infections. The trick is to get diagnosed, as quite commonly those infected are unaware. Abstinence or correct condom use will prevent transmission of this bacteria from one person to the next.
CHLAMYDIA – Health Problems IN WOMEN PID – occurs in 40% of women w/chlamydia Infertility – infection scars the fallopian tubes & keeps eggs from being fertilized Ectopic or tubal pregnancy Chronic pelvic pain HIV/AIDS – women are 5 times more likely to get HIV from a partner that is infected IN MEN Infection & scarring of the urethra Prostatitis – swelling of the prostate Infection of vas deferens Infertility PREVENTION USE CONDOMS EVERY TIME YOU HAVE SEX GET TESTED
GONORRHEA COMMON FACTS Gonorrhea is a common infection of the warm, moist areas of the reproductive tract…cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, urethra….also can grow in the mouth, throat and eyes.
GONORRHEA How do you get it? During vaginal, oral, or anal sex with an infected partner. Touching infected sex organs and then touching your eyes = eye infection. IT IS NOT spread by shaking hands or sitting on toilet seats. Can be passed to baby during deliver and leads to blindness, joint infection or blood infections…death Who is at Risk? Anyone w/multiple or new sex partners Anyone that doesn’t use a condom correctly Sex workers Drug users People who have had other STIs in the past
GONORRHEA SIGNS & SYMPTOMS In Men symptoms can include: Discharge from or pain inside the penis Pain or burning while urinating Painful or swollen testicles Stop having sex and seek testing for yourself and your sex partners
GONORRHEA SIGNS & SYMPTOMS In Women symptoms can include: Pain or burning when urinating Vaginal discharge – yellow or bloody Bleeding between periods Excessively heavy bleeding w/period Pain during sex PID Seek medical attention right away!
GONORRHEA SIGNS & SYMPTOMS CHILDREN: Newborn infants can get Gonorrhea eye infection (conjunctivitis) as they pass through an infected mother's birth canal. This is one reason ALL newborns get an antibiotic ointment put into their eyes immediately after being born. The antibiotic ointment kills both Gonorrhea and Chlamydia neonatal conjunctivitis.
TREATMENT & PREVENTION Gonorrhea used to be 100% curable with Penicillin. Unfortunately, because antibiotics have been used so commonly (often given out for simple colds - where they don't do anything) that the gonorrhea bacteria has developed RESISTANCE! Usually an extra-large dose of azithromycin (Zithromax) will kill the bacteria and cure the disease. Many people who have gonorrhea also have Chlamydia. So doctors treat both STIs at the same time. You must take all your medicine even if the symptoms go away.
Syphilis STI caused by a bacteria Progresses in stages Easy to cure in early stages W/O treatment will damage organs, leading to severe illness and even death. Syphilis is spread through direct contact w/a syphilis sore or rash during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. NOT spread by toilet seat contact, doorknobs, swimming pools, hot tubs, bathtubs, shared clothing or eating utensils.
Syphilis Symptoms Primary – chancre sores appear between days (21 avg) Sore appears at the spot the infection entered the body and is painless Last about 3-6 weeks and is very contagious during this time If it is not treated is moves to the Secondary stage
Syphilis Symptoms Secondary Stage Symptoms Typically starts w/a rash on 1 or more areas of body Includes fever, sore throat, hair loss, headache and muscle ache, weight loss, tiredness Can be passed through contact of open sores Rash and other symptoms will go away w/o treatment..but will move to Latent stage
Syphilis Symptoms Latent Stage Hidden stage starts when symptoms from first 2 stages go away & can last many years Infection lives in body with NO signs/symptoms Cannot be passed to others Late Stage 15% of people advance to this stage Can happen w/in a few years or as many as 20 Organs are damaged, problems with nervous system –Paralysis, dementia, death, You will only reach late stage if you do not receive treatment earlier….
HPV & Genital Warts HPV – group of viruses that include more than 100 different types. More than 40 can be passed through sexual contact. Over ½ of all sexually active people will have HPV at some point in their lives. Most will never know it. Often HPV has no symptoms and goes away on its own.
HPV & Genital Warts 2 types of HPV –Low-risk HPV causes genital warts In women – inside & around outside of vagina, on vulva, cervix or groin In Men – warts grow on penis, scrotum, thigh, groin, anus
HPV & Genital Warts Passed by skin to skin and genital contact Less common to pass HPV during oral sex or hand to genital contact
HPV & Genital Warts HPV vaccine –Cervarix and Gardasil to protect girls and young women –11 and 12 yr old girls…early as 9 and as late as 26 –Series of 3 shots –NO CURE FOR HPV
HPV & Genital Warts Genital warts –Burned,frozen or cut off or left alone –USE A CONDOM TO PREVENT COMING INFECTION
**Pubic Lice** Transmitted by pubic hair contact, infested clothing, towels, and bedding. Main Symptom = itchiness. Usually worse at night when lice bury heads into follicle and feed on blood. Some lice bites can cause secondary bacterial infection due to scratching an area raw. Treatment – shampoo: Pediculicide; Prescription: lindane
HIV & AIDS COMMON FACTS AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Over time, the HIV virus weakens the immune system by infecting and killing certain white blood cells. It is only after the immune system is significantly weakened that people with HIV get one or more "opportunistic" infections.
HIV & AIDS It often takes many many years for somebody infected with HIV to have their immune system weakened to the point where these opportunistic infections (and unusual cancers) can occur. Once somebody begins to get these infections, they are said to have AIDS. The disease was first defined by the CDC (Centers for Disease Control & Prevention) in 1981.
HIV & AIDS It is estimated that over a million Americans are infected with HIV (one in every 250 people). Over 20 million people are infected worldwide. In some areas of Africa, 1 out of every 2 people have HIV!