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By Louanne Kaupa, RD, LN and edited by Felicia Busch, MPH, RD, FADA#7127-Nutrition Labels It may be hard to imagine, but food labels on packages have only been around since Before then, food companies could print their products’ nutritional information basically anywhere they wanted to. ©Learning ZoneXpress By Louanne Kaupa, RD, LN and edited by Felicia Busch, MPH, RD, FADA ©Learning ZoneXpress
Introduction In this presentation you will learn how to:#7127-Nutrition Labels Introduction In this presentation you will learn how to: Recognize the important facts on food labels Define nutrition terms used on labels Compare food products Select foods based on nutritional value Food labels help a consumer learn more about the ingredients in a product, the nutritional value, and how to fit the food into a healthy diet. ©Learning ZoneXpress ©Learning ZoneXpress
#7127-Nutrition Labels History of Food Labels Food labels of the past were often confusing to consumers due to: Listing of nutrients in metric weights Portion sizes being listed in metric weights Complicated fine print Information about dietary fats, fiber and sugar not included and/ or misleading content In 1993, nutrition information on the label changed to reflect the increasing public health concern over dietary excesses. ©Learning ZoneXpress ©Learning ZoneXpress
#7127-Nutrition Labels Rules and Regulations Today’s food label rules and regulations are developed by: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) The Food Safety and Inspection Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Tens of thousands of public comments have been used in helping write the food label rules. Anyone can petition for a change in rules but the final decision is left up to legislation. ©Learning ZoneXpress ©Learning ZoneXpress
Current Food Label Requirements#7127-Nutrition Labels Current Food Label Requirements The current requirements include: Universal format Defined health claims only Standard sizes Daily values Order of ingredient list Contact information Food labels are standardized to make them easy for the consumer to understand and to make food comparison easier. The current requirements include: • Nutrition information that is shown a universal form • Any health claim must be supported by scientific evidence and approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) • Serving sizes are standard or represent a usual serving • Percent of Daily Values reflect how one serving of the food fits into a calorie per day reference diet • The ingredient list names the ingredients in order by the most weight to the least amount of weight • An address or phone number of the manufacturer/ distributor must be on the label ©Learning ZoneXpress ©Learning ZoneXpress
Exceptions to the Rules#7127-Nutrition Labels Exceptions to the Rules Some of the current exceptions include: Plain coffee and tea Spices and flavorings Sample sized products Foods made on-site Fresh fruits, vegetables and seafood Some foods or food products are not required to have a “Nutrition Facts” label. Some of the current exceptions include: Plain coffee and tea – are single ingredient items without much nutritional value. Spices, flavorings, and foods with no significant source of any nutrient – for example, black pepper does not require a nutrition label, but paprika – made from red peppers does – because some nutrients such as vitamins A and C are in this spice. Foods that are packaged in “sample” sizes not reflecting a “usual” serving. Ready-to-eat foods prepared on site – the rationale behind this is that since they are made in the store, you should be able to ask the person who prepared it the nutrition information about the product. The store should have details written down to refer to when answering such questions. Fruits, vegetables and fish – most stores display posters or other charts with the nutrition information for these fresh foods – if they don’t ask the manager. ©Learning ZoneXpress ©Learning ZoneXpress
#7127-Nutrition Labels The ‘Nutrition Facts’ Nutrition information that must be listed on the “Nutrition Facts” panel includes: Serving size of the food in both a household measuring unit and its metric equivalent. The number of servings in the container. The total calories in each serving and the total calories from fat. Nutrition information is listed as amount of “% Daily Value” it represents per serving. The serving size is the most important piece of information on the food label. All the numbers and percentages are calculated based on someone eating this amount. If you eat more or less than the standard serving size listed – your nutrition intake will vary from what’s listed on the package. ©Learning ZoneXpress ©Learning ZoneXpress
The Percent Daily Values#7127-Nutrition Labels The Percent Daily Values “% Daily Values” are used to show how one serving of food fits into a 2000 calorie reference diet % Daily values shows how one serving fits into a 2000 calorie diet The nutrition information that must be listed on the “Nutrition Facts” panel include: • Total fat - Saturated fat - Trans fat • Cholesterol • Sodium • Total Carbohydrate - Dietary Fiber - Sugar • Protein • Vitamin A • Vitamin C • Calcium • Iron If you eat more or less than 2000 calories per day, then the % Daily Values are not correct for your needs. However, they do give you a guideline that shows which foods are high or low in certain nutrients. If a food contains 5% or less of a nutrients, it’s not a significant source – if it contains 20% or more, then it may be an important source of that nutrient. Of course, all this depends on how much you eat compared to the serving size listed. ©Learning ZoneXpress ©Learning ZoneXpress
Terms Used On Food Labels#7127-Nutrition Labels Terms Used On Food Labels Total Fat Saturated Trans fat Polyunsaturated fat Monounsaturated fat Cholesterol Total Fat - Amount of all types of fat in the product, including: Saturated Fat - Raises “bad” cholesterol levels. Trans Fat - Raises “bad” cholesterol levels AND lowers “good” cholesterol. Polyunsaturated Fat – raises both good and bad cholesterol levels, use in moderation. Monounsaturated Fat– it is not required to list monounsaturated fats on the nutrition label. However the sum of all types of fat should add up to the total fat. If monounsaturated fats are not listed then simply subtract the sum of the other fats from the total fat to determine the amount (if any) of monounsaturated fats. Cholesterol – For some people, eating foods high in cholesterol can raise their “bad” blood cholesterol levels. Most foods are a combination of the different types of fats. ©Learning ZoneXpress ©Learning ZoneXpress
#7127-Nutrition Labels Facts on Fat To lower your fat intake, compare similar foods and choose: Food with the lower combined saturated and trans fats AND the lower amount of cholesterol Many food companies and restaurants are voluntarily reducing or eliminating the use of trans fats in their products Eating 2 of these cookies provides a total of 6 grams of fat. How many grams of fat would you consume if you ate 5 cookies? (15 grams). Add the total of saturated fat and trans fat and compare to the total fat. 2.5 to 6, Almost half of the fat in these cookies is from unhealthy fats, so this is probably not the best choice. ©Learning ZoneXpress ©Learning ZoneXpress
Terms Used On Food Labels#7127-Nutrition Labels Terms Used On Food Labels Diet Low Calorie Reduced Calorie Fat Free Low Fat Calorie-Free Sugar-Free Diet - A food that is either a low calorie or reduced calorie food. Low Calorie - Contains no more than 40 calories per serving. Reduced Calorie - Contains 25 percent fewer calories per serving than a “regular” product. Fat Free - .5g or less of fat per serving. Low Fat - 3g or less of fat per serving. Calorie-Free - Contains less than 5 calories per serving. Sugar-Free - Contains less than half a gram of sugar per serving. ©Learning ZoneXpress ©Learning ZoneXpress
Terms Used On Food Labels#7127-Nutrition Labels Terms Used On Food Labels Excellent Source Good Source Healthy Light Excellent Source - Provides at least 20% of the Daily Value per serving. Good Source - Provides 10-19% of the Daily Value per serving. Healthy - Allowed only on food items which are low in fat, saturated fats, cholesterol, and sodium. Is usually used with an approved health claim and then only as “part of a healthy diet.” Light - A serving provides 1/3 fewer calories or half the fat of a “regular” product. A serving of a low calorie, low fat food provides half the sodium normally present. The product is light in color or texture and the label describes this. ©Learning ZoneXpress ©Learning ZoneXpress
Terms Used On Food Labels#7127-Nutrition Labels Terms Used On Food Labels Reduced Low Sodium Very Low Sodium Lean Extra Lean 0g Trans Fat Reduced – Contains 25% less of a nutrient or calories than a “regular” product. Low Sodium – 140mg or less of sodium per serving. Very Low Sodium – 35mg or less sodium per serving. Lean – Not more than: 10g fat, 4.5g saturated fat, and 95mg cholesterol or less per serving. Extra Lean – Not more than: 5g of fat, 2g saturated fat, or 95mg cholesterol per serving. 0g Trans Fat – Less than .5g of trans fat per serving. ©Learning ZoneXpress ©Learning ZoneXpress
#7127-Nutrition Labels Health Claims In the past, many labels listed false claims to improve health or prevent certain diseases Today, the FDA has very strict guidelines on which nutrients may be linked with diseases The guidelines were created based on scientific evidence. The following are health claims which currently have been proven and can be listed on FDA approved food products. ©Learning ZoneXpress ©Learning ZoneXpress
Health Claims Calcium linked to osteoporosis#7127-Nutrition Labels Health Claims Calcium linked to osteoporosis Sodium linked with high blood pressure Dietary fat linked with certain cancers Dietary saturated fat and cholesterol linked with coronary heart disease Fiber linked to certain cancers Fruits and vegetables linked with certain cancers Calcium linked to osteoporosis. Foods must be low in sodium. Dietary fat linked with certain cancers. Foods must be low fat. Dietary saturated fat and cholesterol linked with coronary heat disease. Foods must be low in saturated fat, total fat, and cholesterol. Fiber linked to certain cancers. Foods must be low fat and a good source of natural dietary fiber. Fruits and vegetables linked with certain cancers. Foods must be low fat and an excellent source of natural fiber, vitamin A and vitamin C. ©Learning ZoneXpress ©Learning ZoneXpress
#7127-Nutrition Labels Comparison Claims Today many products use the terms “reduced,” “fewer,” “less,” “more,” and “light” to assist in comparison shopping In order to use these terms the manufacturer must include the percent difference with the product being compared Today many products use the terms “reduced,” “fewer,” “less,” “more,” and “light” to assist in comparison shopping. In order to use these terms the manufacturer must include the percent difference with the product being compared. ©Learning ZoneXpress ©Learning ZoneXpress
#7127-Nutrition Labels Comparison Claims Products using the terms “light” or “reduced” must be compared with a similar product Products using the terms “less” or “fewer” may be compared to different products Products using the terms “enriched,” “added,” or “fortified” must have 10% or more of the Daily Value for a particular nutrient than the product being compared Products using the terms “light” or “reduced” must be compared with a similar product. Products using the terms “less” or “fewer” may be compared to different products. For example, chips may be compared to pretzels. Products using the terms “enriched”, “added”, or “fortified” must have 10% or more of the Daily Value for a particular nutrient than the product being compared. ©Learning ZoneXpress ©Learning ZoneXpress
Main Dishes Many consumers today are purchasing entire meal entrees#7127-Nutrition Labels Main Dishes Many consumers today are purchasing entire meal entrees Consumers want to know how these meals fit into the daily nutritional values The FDA defines a “main dish” as weighing at least 10 ounces and with at least 3 different foods from at least 2 of the 4 main food groups. Food label claims on “main dishes” are subject to the same rules and regulations as individual foods. The food label should also list the total nutrients in an entire packaged item that’s meant for a single use. ©Learning ZoneXpress ©Learning ZoneXpress
Dietary Guidelines for Americans#7127-Nutrition Labels Dietary Guidelines for Americans The Dietary Guidelines for Americans were developed by the USDA and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans has been published jointly every 5 years since 1980 by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture. The Guidelines provide authoritative advice for people two years and older about how good dietary habits can promote health and reduce risk for major chronic diseases. They serve as the basis for Federal food and nutrition education programs. The intent of the Dietary Guidelines is to summarize and synthesize knowledge regarding individual nutrients and food components into recommendations for a pattern of eating that can be adopted by the public. In this publication, Key Recommendations are grouped under nine inter-related focus areas. The recommendations are based on the preponderance of scientific evidence for lowering risk of chronic disease and promoting health. It is important to remember that these are integrated messages that should be implemented as a whole. Taken together, they encourage most Americans to eat fewer calories, be more active, and make wiser food choices. Key Recommendations • Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverages within and among the basic food groups while choosing foods that limit the intake of saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, salt, and alcohol. •Meet recommended intakes within energy needs by adopting a balanced eating pattern, such as the USDA Food Guide or the DASH Eating Plan. Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, th Edition, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, January 2005. ©Learning ZoneXpress ©Learning ZoneXpress
Feel better today… stay healthy tomorrow.#7127-Nutrition Labels Feel better today… stay healthy tomorrow. Make smart choices from every food group Find your balance between food and physical activity Get the most nutrition in your calories MyPyramid offers personalized eating plans, interactive tools to help you plan and assess your food choices to help individuals create an eating style consistent with the recommendations in the Dietary Guidelines. Check out the MyPyramid podcasts which show videos that will help you understand the health and nutrition messages. There are a variety of topics to choose from. MyPyramid was created by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion. ©Learning ZoneXpress ©Learning ZoneXpress
Make smart choices… from every food group.#7127-Nutrition Labels Make smart choices… from every food group. A healthy eating plan is one that: Emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products Includes lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs and nuts Is low in saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, salt (sodium) and added sugars Encourage students to go to MyPyramid Tracker - an online dietary and physical activity assessment tool that provides information on your diet quality, physical activity status, related nutrition messages, and links to nutrient and physical activity information. The Food Calories/Energy Balance feature automatically calculates your energy balance by subtracting the energy you expend from physical activity from your food calories/energy intake. Use of this tool helps you better understand your energy balance status and enhances the link between good nutrition and regular physical activity. Keep track of your energy balance history and view it up to one year. MyPyramid Tracker translates the principles of the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and other nutrition standards developed by the U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services. ©Learning ZoneXpress ©Learning ZoneXpress
Mix up your choices… within each food group.#7127-Nutrition Labels Mix up your choices… within each food group. Get your calcium-rich foods Focus on fruits Vary your veggies Make half your grains whole Go lean with protein Key Recommendations from the Dietary Guidelines on Variety • Consume a sufficient amount of fruits and vegetables while staying within energy needs. Two cups of fruit and 2 1/2 cups of vegetables per day are recommended for a reference 2,000-calorie intake, with higher or lower amounts depending on the calorie level • Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables each day. In particular, select from all five vegetable subgroups (dark green, orange, legumes, starchy vegetables, and other vegetables) several times a week. • Consume 3 or more ounce-equivalents of whole-grain products per day, with the rest of the recommended grains coming from enriched or whole-grain products. In general, at least half the grains should come from whole grains. Consume 3 cups per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or equivalent milk products. ©Learning ZoneXpress ©Learning ZoneXpress
Find your balance between…#7127-Nutrition Labels Find your balance between… food and physical activity. Children and teenagers should be physically active for 60 minutes every day, or most every day If you eat 100 more food calories a day than you burn, you’ll gain about one pound in a month. That’s 12 pounds a year! Key Recommendations from The Dietary Guidelines on physical activity: Engage in regular physical activity and reduce sedentary activities to promote health, psychological well-being, and a healthy body weight. • To reduce the risk of chronic disease in adulthood: Engage in at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity, above usual activity, at work or home on most days of the week. • For most people, greater health benefits can be obtained by engaging in physical activity of more vigorous intensity or longer duration. • To help manage body weight and prevent gradual, unhealthy body weight gain in adulthood: Engage in approximately 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity on most days of the week while not exceeding caloric intake requirements. • To sustain weight loss in adulthood: Participate in at least 60 to 90 minutes of daily moderate-intensity physical activity while not exceeding caloric intake requirements. Some people may need to consult with a healthcare provider before participating in this level of activity. Achieve physical fitness by including cardiovascular conditioning, stretching exercises for flexibility, and resistance exercises or calisthenics for muscle strength and endurance. ©Learning ZoneXpress ©Learning ZoneXpress
#7127-Nutrition Labels You’re the Expert You are grocery shopping with your Grandma who tells you she never reads food labels because of her bad experiences with them in the past Explain to her how the food labels have changed and the information they provide Discuss your responses in small groups and then create a role play to present to your class on what your group would do in this situation. ©Learning ZoneXpress ©Learning ZoneXpress
#7127-Nutrition Labels Applying What You Know Pick one of the following assignments to be completed outside of class. Select three different food labels and display them on a poster. Include descriptions of each part of the label. Also write a brief description of how you would include this product in your daily diet. Visit a local supermarket and do your own comparison shopping. Select five different foods to compare to at least three similar items (for example, compare three different types of frozen pizzas, or three different brands of cereal). Which product would you select in each of the five categories, why? Write a one-page summary of your results. Design your own label for a product of your choice. Be sure to include accurate information and meet all of the food label requirements. Present your label to the class and share the product information. ©Learning ZoneXpress ©Learning ZoneXpress
Quiz Choose the best answer for the following questions.#7127-Nutrition Labels Quiz Choose the best answer for the following questions. 1. Food label regulations are developed by the: a) FDA b) Food Safety and Inspection Service c) United Supermarket Association d) A and B 2. Which of the following is not a current requirement on food labels? a) Information is current and accurate. b) Health claims are scientifically proven. c) The product is compared with a similar product. d) A phone number or address of the distributor /manufacturer is on the label. 3. Which of the following terms refers to a product which has 0.5 gm or less of fat per serving? a) Low Fat b) Light c) Reduced Fat d) Fat Free Quiz Answers 1. D – FDA and FSIS 2. C – The product is compared with a similar product. 3. D – Fat Free ©Learning ZoneXpress ©Learning ZoneXpress
Quiz 4. Which of the following items must be included on a food label?#7127-Nutrition Labels Quiz 4. Which of the following items must be included on a food label? a) Nutrition Facts b) Total number of servings c) Total Calories from fat d) All of the Above 5. Which comparison terms can only be used when comparing similar product items? a) “less” or “fewer” b) “Healthy” c) “light” or “reduced” d) “more” Quiz Answers 1. D – All of the above 2. A – less or fewer ©Learning ZoneXpress ©Learning ZoneXpress
#7127-Nutrition Labels Exploring the Web Here are some suggested sites you and your class may want to investigate for more information on nutrients: Facts and information on understanding food labels FDA Food Labeling Web Site Media/Publications/testlabeliq.pdf Test your food label IQ USDA food guide & dietary guidelines Teachers: Please note that these addresses are constantly changing and being updated. You may need to revise this list. ©Learning ZoneXpress ©Learning ZoneXpress
#7127-Nutrition Labels Copyright 2009 Learning ZoneXpress ©Learning ZoneXpress ©Learning ZoneXpress
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