2 Latitude lines run east/west but they measure north or south of the equator (0°) splitting the earth into the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere.
3 Latitude North Pole South Pole 9080[Lines of latitude are numbered from 0° at the equator to 90° N.L. at the North Pole.706050403020]Lines of latitude are numbered from 0° at the equator to 90° S.L. at the South Pole.10102030TEKS: Social Studies –6.22 (A), Using social studies terminology correctly7.22 (A), 8.31 (A)405060708090
4 Latitude The North Pole is at 90° N The South Pole is at 90° S 40° N is the 40° line of latitude north of the equator.40° S is the 40° line of latitude south of the equator.The equator is at 0° latitude. It is neither north nor south. It is at the center between north and south.TEKS: Social Studies –6.22 (A), Using social studies terminology correctly7.22 (A), 8.31 (A)
5 Longitude Lines of longitude begin at the Prime Meridian. 60° E is the 60° line of longitude east of the Prime Meridian.60° W is the60° line oflongitude westof the PrimeMeridian.The Prime Meridian is located at 0°. It is neither east or westWETEKS: Social Studies –6.22 (A), Using social studies terminology correctly7.22 (A), 8.31 (A)
6 Longitude180°NNorth PoleWEWest LongitudeEast LongitudePRIME MERIDIANSLines of longitude are numbered east from the Prime Meridian to the 180° line and west from the Prime Meridian to the 180° line.TEKS: Social Studies –6.22 (A), Using social studies terminology correctly7.22 (A), 8.31 (A)
7 Prime Meridian The Prime Meridian (0°) and the 180° line split the earth into the Western Hemisphere and Eastern Hemisphere. Prime MeridianWestern HemisphereEastern HemispherePlaces located east of the Prime Meridian have an east longitude (E) address. Places located west of the Prime Meridian have a west longitude (W) address.TEKS: Social Studies –6.22 (A), Using social studies terminology correctly7.22 (A), 8.31 (A)
8 INTERNATIONAL DATE LINE 180° SEPARATES 2 CALENDAR DAYS.America to Asia – gain a dayAsia to America – lose a dayIf you took a cruise on a ship, circumventing, or traveling around the entire planet, you would experience firsthand a phenomena that would help you understand the importance of an international dateline. An explorer by the name of Ferdinand Magellan did just that in the year Magellan along with 241 men set out to travel around the entire Earth. These men kept very careful records as they traveled. Yet, when they returned, they found that their calendars were off by one day with the calendars of everyone in their home countries. What happened? How did these men loose an entire day? The day was not lost all at once. It was lost little by little, as the traveled around the Earth. If you stay in one place, a day lasts 24 hours. However, if you travel the opposite direction of the rotation of the Earth, your day will be slightly longer than 24 hours, because you are traveling ahead of the setting sun. If you travel with the rotation of the Earth, your day will be slightly shorter than 24 hours, because you are traveling into the sunset.At any one moment there are actually two days on the Earth at the same time. A new day begins at mid-night on the International Dateline. It travels around the Earth, until 48 hours later it ends back at the International dateline. If you were to travel across the International Dateline, the date would change either forward, or backward. This line actually lies in the middle of a time zone. This means that the hour on the clock would not change, as you crossed over, just the date.
9 By combining latitude and longitude, any location can be pinpointed
10 A location’s coordinates (____° N or S, ____ ° E or W)
11 Application NW ESNorth America is in the Northern Hemisphere because it is north of the Equator. North America is in the Western Hemisphere because it is west of the Prime Meridian.TEKS: Social Studies –6.3 (B), Posing and answering questions about geographic distributions and patterns6.22 (A), Using social studies terminology correctly7.22 (A), 8.31 (A)
12 Fractions of a Degree1 degree = 60 minutes or 1 minute is 1/60th of a degreeUse minutes if location is not directly on the latitude/longitude lineWritten Degree/minute = XX° xx’ compass direction30’ is half-way between degrees
13 LONGITUDE AND TIME The world rotates (spins) 360° in 24 hours. 360° / 24 hours = 15° per hourThe world has 24 time zones, each l5° apart.THERE IS A 1 HOUR TIME DIFFERENCE FOR EVERY 15° OF LONGITUDE
14 Greenwich, England is the logical starting point for time zones The world rotates west to east (counterclockwise), time zones to the east are ahead of the those time zones to the west
15 Time is forward to all places to the east WEST LESS ANOTHER CHEESY SAYINGEAST INCREASETime is forward to all places to the eastWEST LESSTime is backward to all places to the west
16 East Increase – West Less (1 hr per l5°) If it 9 p.m. at Position D, what time is it at position C? Position B?If it is 1 p.m. at Position X, at which location is the time 5 p.m.
17 Earth rotates west to east Solar time is based on the position of the sun NIGHT IS FALLING ON EARTH Look at the East Coast of the United States. The lights are already lit.California the sun is still visible.
19 It’s still daylight in California SaguenaySept-IlesThunder BayTorontoSt.JohnOttawaIt’s still daylight in CaliforniaQuébecMontréalThose light are Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Washington.DetroitDallasPuerto RicoHoustonMiamiMexico CityHavanaPort-au-Prince
20 NIGHT IS FALLING ON EARTH. Look at Paris and Barcelona, the lights are already lit, meanwhile in London, Lisbon and Madrid the sun is still visible.Looking south, we can see the islands in the middle of the ocean.We have a perfect view of the British Islands, Iceland and Canada.