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Introduction to Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice

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1 Introduction to Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice
Chapter 1 Introduction to Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice

2 Introduction to the Course
Introduction of class members Review of syllabus Presentation of class schedule Questions

3 Class Discussion Questions
What was your reaction when you learned you were required to take a research course?

4 Class Discussion Questions (cont’d)
What is the value of a research course to you as a nurse?

5 What Is Research? To search again To examine carefully
Diligent and systematic inquiry Discovery Goal is to develop an empirical body of knowledge for a discipline

6 Definition of Nursing Research
A scientific process that validates and refines existing knowledge and generates new knowledge that directly and indirectly influences nursing practice. It is the key to building an evidence-based practice for nursing.

7 Using Research in Practice
Synthesis of knowledge (research, theory, and clinical experiences) Effect of philosophy Making a change in practice Evaluation of change for patient, provider, and health care system

8 Integrative Review of Research
Critique of studies on a selected topic or practice problem Development of evidence-based practice guidelines: Example: safe administration of intramuscular injections Summarize the findings. Draw conclusions about what is known or not known about the topic.

9 Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines
Conscientious integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values and needs in the delivery of high-quality, cost-effective health care Synthesis of knowledge for development of guidelines, standards, protocols, or policies to direct nursing interventions and practice

10 Why Is Research Important for Evidence-Based Practice?
Develops empirical knowledge base Identifies best practices that are based on clinical practices Improves outcomes for: Patient and family Nurse Health care system

11 Nursing Research Provides:
Description Explanation Prediction Control

12 Description Identifying and understanding the nature of nursing phenomena and the relationships among the phenomena to: Describe what exists in nursing practice. Discover new information. Promote understanding of situations. Classify information for use in the discipline.

13 Explanation Clarifying the relationships among phenomena and identifying the reasons why certain events occur

14 Prediction Estimating and anticipating the outcomes in a particular situation

15 Control Manipulating a situation so as to achieve a particular outcome

16 Research Participation at Various Levels of Educational Preparation

17 BSN Researcher Role Identify research problems.
Assist with data collection. Critique research studies. Summarize research findings for use in practice.

18 Class Discussion Question
Why should nurses be excellent consumers of research?

19 History of Nursing Research
Nursing research has evolved slowly over the years. Nursing research began in the 19th century with Florence Nightingale. Clinical research is the current major focus of nursing research and will continue to be so throughout the 21st century.

20 Florence Nightingale Nightingale focused on the importance of a healthy environment for patients. Aspects of her research included: Ventilation Cleanliness Purity of water Healthy diet

21 Nursing Research: 1900–1940s American Journal of Nursing first published in 1900. Case studies reported in the 1920s and 1930s. Graduate programs in nursing began in the 1920s. Research conducted by nurses in the 1940s.

22 Nursing Research: 1950s 1950—American Nurses Association begins 5-year study of nursing functions and activities. 1952—Nursing Research published BSN and MS nursing programs add research to their curricula. 1953—Institute for Research and Service in Nursing Education established by Teacher’s College, Columbia University.

23 Nursing Research: 1960s 1963—International Journal of Nursing Studies
1967—Image published by Sigma Theta Tau (now titled The Journal of Nursing Scholarship)

24 Nursing Research: 1970s 1970—ANA Commission on Nursing Research
1972—Council of Nurse Researchers 1978—Advances in Nursing Science 1978—Research in Nursing and Health 1979—Western Journal of Nursing Research

25 Nursing Research: 1980s 1982–1983—Conduct and Utilization of Research in Nursing project (CURN) 1983—Annual Review of Nursing Research 1985—National Center for Nursing Research (NCNR) 1987—Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice 1988—Applied Nursing Research and Nursing Science Quarterly 1989—Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR)

26 Nursing Research: 1990s 1992—Clinical Nursing Research
1993—National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) 1993—Journal of Nursing Measurement 1994—Qualitative Health Research AHCPR renamed Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). 1999—AACN position statement on nursing research

27 Nursing Research: 21st Century
2000—Healthy People 2010 2000—Biological Research for Nursing 2002—Joint Commission revised policies to support evidence-based care. 2004—Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing

28 21st Century 2005—AHRQ guidelines and priorities 2005—NINR priorities
2005—NINR priorities 2006—Revised AACN position statements on nursing research

29 Ways of Acquiring Knowledge in Nursing
Traditions Authority Borrowing Trial and error Personal experience Role modeling Intuition Reasoning

30 Practice Knowledge Base
Identify two common behaviors used in your practice. Indicate the knowledge base for these behaviors. Is your practice based mainly on research or on other types of knowledge?

31 Nursing Research Methods
Quantitative research Qualitative research Outcomes research

32 Quantitative Research Methods
Descriptive research Correlational research Quasi-experimental research Experimental research

33 Quantitative Research Characteristics
Philosophical origin: logical positivism Focus: concise, objective, reductionistic Reasoning: logistic, deductive Basis of knowing: cause-and-effect relationships Theoretical focus: tests theory

34 Qualitative Research Methods
Phenomenological research Ground theory research Ethnographic research Historical research Focus groups

35 Qualitative Research Characteristics
Philosophical origin: naturalistic, interpretive, humanistic Focus: broad, subjective, holistic Reasoning: dialectic, inductive Basis of knowing: meaning, discovery, understanding Theoretical focus: theory development

36 Outcomes Research Focus of outcomes:
Patients and families Providers (nurses, physicians) Health care systems Outcomes used change practice and develop policy.

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