5 (a) Dehydration reaction: synthesizing a polymer Figure 5.2a(a) Dehydration reaction: synthesizing a polymer123Short polymerUnlinked monomerDehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond.Figure 5.2 The synthesis and breakdown of polymers.1234Longer polymer
6 (b) Hydrolysis: breaking down a polymer Figure 5.2b(b) Hydrolysis: breaking down a polymer1234Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond.Figure 5.2 The synthesis and breakdown of polymers.123
10 Figure 5.3 The structure and classification of some monosaccharides. Aldoses (Aldehyde Sugars)Ketoses (Ketone Sugars)Trioses: 3-carbon sugars (C3H6O3)GlyceraldehydeDihydroxyacetonePentoses: 5-carbon sugars (C5H10O5)RiboseRibuloseHexoses: 6-carbon sugars (C6H12O6)Figure 5.3 The structure and classification of some monosaccharides.GlucoseGalactoseFructose
13 (a) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of maltose Figure 5.51–4 glycosidic linkage14GlucoseGlucoseMaltose(a) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of maltose1–2 glycosidic linkage12Figure 5.5 Examples of disaccharide synthesis.GlucoseFructoseSucrose(b) Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of sucrose
19 (a) and glucose ring structures Figure 5.7(a) and glucose ring structures4141 Glucose Glucose1414Figure 5.7 Starch and cellulose structures.(b) Starch: 1–4 linkage of glucose monomers(c) Cellulose: 1–4 linkage of glucose monomers
20 Cellulose microfibrils in a plant cell wall Figure 5.8Cellulose microfibrils in a plant cell wallCell wallMicrofibril10 m0.5 mFigure 5.8 The arrangement of cellulose in plant cell walls.Cellulose molecules Glucose monomer
23 The structure of the chitin monomer Figure 5.9The structure of the chitin monomerChitin forms the exoskeleton of arthropods.Figure 5.9 Chitin, a structural polysaccharide.Chitin is used to make a strong and flexible surgical thread that decomposes after the wound or incision heals.