Presentation on theme: "Cells & Enzymes Section 2. Catalysts The rate chemical reaction can be speeded up by raising the temperature or adding a catalyst A catalyst is not changed."— Presentation transcript:
Catalysts The rate chemical reaction can be speeded up by raising the temperature or adding a catalyst A catalyst is not changed by the reaction so it can be re-used An artificial catalyst used to speed up the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide is manganese dioxide
Enzymes Enzymes are biological catalysts and are found in all living cells The enzyme that speeds up the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen is called catalase HYDROGEN PEROXIDE OXYGEN + WATER catalase
The Nature of Enzymes There are thousands of different enzymes working in your body Why are there so many different enzymes? Each enzyme has its own substrate and no other enzyme can work on that substrate The substrate of an enzyme is the substance it works on e.g. hydrogen peroxide is the substrate for the enzyme catalase.
Lock & Key Theory Enzymes are made from An enzyme can only work on it’s own specific substrate For this reason an enzyme’s action is said to be SPECIFIC Similar to a lock and key – only one specific key (substrate) will fit into a specific lock (enzyme) proteins
Each enzyme has a particular area on its surface called an active site The active site matches the shape of the enzyme’s substrate so it can join to the enzyme complimentary This substrate will not works with the enzyme because the shape is not complimentary to the enzyme
Types of Reactions Enzymes can be involved in two different types of reactions: Breakdown (Degradation) Reactions Breakdown (Degradation) Reactions Building-Up (Synthesis) Reactions Building-Up (Synthesis) Reactions
Breakdown Reactions Breakdown or degradation reactions convert large molecules into smaller ones An example of this is the breakdown of large starch molecules into smaller maltose molecules by amylase Amylase is found naturally in saliva
Breakdown Reactions Starch is broken down by the enzyme.…….… to ……….. sugar molecules STARCH AMYLASE MALTOSE STARCH AMYLASE MALTOSE Large starch moleculeSmall maltose molecules amylase maltose
Breakdown Reactions Hydrogen Peroxide is broken down into ……… and ……….. gas by the enzyme ………… HYDROGEN PEROXIDE CATALASE WATER+OXYGEN water oxygen catalase
Breakdown Reactions Sucrose is broken down into ……….. and ………… by the enzyme ………… SUCROSE INVERTASE GLUCOSE + FRUCTOSE glucose invertasefructose S FG
Breaking Down Protein Protein is another large, insoluble, molecule that needs to be broken down into smaller, soluble, units so that it can get across the cell membrane and into our bodies Protein is broken down into polypeptides by the enzyme pepsin Protein pepsin Polypeptides
Breaking Down Fats Fats must be broken down into smaller units called fatty acids and glycerol Fats must be broken down so we can absorb them into our bodies The enzyme lipase helps to break down the fats Fats lipase Fatty acids + Glycerol
Synthesis Reactions Build-up or synthesis reactions convert small molecules to larger ones An example of this is the build up of starch from glucose-1-phosphate molecules
The build up of glucose-1-phosphate in plants Leaves make glucose Some used as energy for growth Some transported to root for storage Once in roots glucose is converted to glucose-1-phosphate The enzyme phosphorylase converts lots of glucose-1-phosphate into a larger starch molecule Glucose-1-phosphate phosphorylase Starch
Phosphorylase Experiment Aim: to show that starch is being synthesised when the substrate and enzyme are both present
Row A: glucose-1-phosphate and phosphorylase Row B: glucose-1- phosphate and distilled water Row C: distilled water and phosphorylase
Row A: glucose-1-phosphate and phosphorylase Row B: glucose-1-phosphate and distilled water Row C: distilled water and phosphorylase Row A was the only one that gave a positive result with iodine solution. This means that there was starch present in row A only. This experiment proves that in order to synthesise starch from glucose-1-phosphate and the enzyme phosphorylase must be present.
Controls Row A: glucose-1-phosphate and phosphorylase Row B: glucose-1-phosphate and distilled water Row C: distilled water and phosphorylase Rows B and C where used as controls in this experiment to prove that both the enzyme and the substrate were needed together to synthesise starch.
Digestive Enzymes Each enzyme has an optimum pH Mouth = pH 7 amylase Stomach = pH 2 pepsin Small Intestine = pH 9 trypsin Most enzymes that work in the body have an optimum temperature of 37°C
Effects of Temperature Like you, enzymes like to be at a comfortable temperature to work at their maximum rate If the temperature is too low, there is not enough energy for the reaction to go By increasing the temperature, the rate of reaction will increase because there is more energy for the reaction After a certain temperature, the reaction will start to decrease rapidly to zero
Effects of Temperature When enzymes reach a particular temperature, they will work at their maximum capacity. The temperature at which an enzyme works best is known as the optimum temperature. If the temperature continues to rise, the enzyme’s shape will eventually be destroyed. We say that the enzyme has been denatured.