# Review. A- Albedo Is the % of solar radiation reflected by an object or surface Higher albedo = more radiation reflected by the surface Albedo, together.

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Review

A- Albedo Is the % of solar radiation reflected by an object or surface Higher albedo = more radiation reflected by the surface Albedo, together with reflection by the atmosphere, thus decreases the amount of incoming radiation that actually absorbed by Earth High or low albedo? a.A mirror: ___________ b.A lawn: ___________ c.A sidewalk: ___________ d.An asphalt driveway : ____________

Albedo Is the % of solar radiation reflected by an object or surface Higher albedo = more radiation reflected by the surface Albedo, together with reflection by the atmosphere, thus decreases the amount of incoming radiation that actually absorbed by Earth High or low albedo? a.A mirror: high b.A lawn: low c.A sidewalk: low d.An asphalt driveway : low

8.8 Global Energy Transfer

The equator receives more radiation than the poles  Earth is not heated evenly. Energy is transferred from equator to the poles Water in the hydrosphere and air in the atmosphere act as heat sinks, storing a great deal of thermal energy Comparing the same volumes, liquid water can hold more thermal energy than air 8.8 Global Energy Transfer Intro

How is energy transferred in the atmosphere? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WXuGYSM2D8k

Atmospheric circulation Air at equator heats up, moves up in the atm and becomes less dense  creating areas of low pressure underneath (less matter) Air cools and sinks towards the poles  creating areas of high pressure Air flows from high to low pressure creating wind. Earth has permanent bands of high and low air pressure, thus there are prevailing winds that blow in the same direction almost all the time. Due to Earth’s rotation, prevailing winds curve instead of moving directly north or south. They also push warm ocean water to the poles

Energy transferred in the atmosphere Convection currents: -a circular current in fluid (e.g. air, water) caused by rising of warm fluids as cold fluids sinks -Cold air holds less moisture and is drier than warm air https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WXuGYSM2D8k

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i2mec3vgeaI The Coriolis Effect Air a the equator is rotating faster than air near the poles Faster air moving towards the poles “gets ahead” of the surface and appears to shift eastwards (as viewed from space). Slower air moving towards the equator (from poles) “lags behind” the rotating surface and appears to shift westwards (as view from space)

ENERGY TRANSFER IN OCEANS

How prevailing winds influence climate? Origin of prevailing winds (PW) influence whether climate is moist or dry As PW pass over ocean, H 2 O vapour is picked up, When reaches land, it becomes rain If PW come from poles, it’s cold and dry

Oceans- the driving forces of climate and weather https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6vgvTeuoD WY

Generally moves warm water from the equator to the poles and cold water from the poles to the equator Ocean currents are driven by 1. surface winds (i.e. prevailing winds) 2. differences in salinity and temperature of ocean water. How is energy transferred in the ocean?

2. Ocean Current caused by different in density and temp. of water Different seawater densities due to a.Cold water is denser than warm water b.Near the poles, ice is formed from fresh water leaving behind more salt in the remaining water (i.e. increasing sea water’s salinity) Different seawater temperature: Warm currents float while cold currents sink

The Ocean Conveyor Belt Thermohaline circulation: the continuous flow of water around the world, driven by temperature and salinity differences https://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=SdgUyLTUYkg&feature=endscreens

Examples of effects of Ocean currents Brazil receives a warm ocean current making the climate warm and moist allowing rainforest to flourish At the same latitude, Peru receives a cold ocean current, making the climate cool and dry (Atacama Desert in Peru)

http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/edu/learning/player/lesson 08.html

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