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Basics of Muscular Training

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1 Basics of Muscular Training

2 What is resistance training?
Any activity utilizing resistance to induce muscle contractions Usually organized into workouts made up of different exercises, sets, and repetitions. Benefits of regular resistance training include: Increased strength, muscular size, explosiveness, bone, ligament, and tendon strength, increased metabolism, cardiovascular health, confidence, physical attractiveness. Decrease risk of heart disease, diabetes, obesity, orthopedic injury, cholesterol

3 Muscular hypertrophy Skeletal muscles increase size through a process called hypertrophy. Stress to muscles (resistance training) causes micro trauma to individual muscle cells. The body repairs these micro trauma by synthesizing more proteins. The result is an increase in muscle cell size.


5 Hyperplasia Hyperplasia is the increase in muscle size due to an increased number of muscle fibers. This has been observed in many animals such as rats, mice and rabbits. Studies show that humans do NOT grow through hyperplasia.

6 Components of a workout
Warm-up 5-10 minutes of light aerobic activity-enough to maintain a sweat Can include dynamic stretching Increases blood flow to muscles, synovial fluid to joints, increases core body temperature

7 Components of a workout
“Bulk” of workout Can be resistance training, agility training, speed training, or aerobic training. Cool down Similar or identical to warm-up Flexibility Static stretching

8 Basics of resistance training- the rep
Completing the positive and negative phase of a movement through the full range of motion.

9 Basics of resistance training- the Rep
Positive phase Contraction of prime mover The “push” of a push-up The “pull” of a pull-up Negative phase The CONTROLLED lengthening of the prime mover The lowering of a push-up The lowering of a pull-up

10 The perfect rep 2-4 seconds of smooth movement during the positive phase A complete ½ second pause (don’t even move an 8th of an inch!) at the top of the motion 3-5 seconds of smooth movement during the negative phase. A complete ½ second pause at bottom of movement. ELIMINATE THE USE OF MOMENTUM You are 60% stronger in the negative phase of a lift- DO NOT NEGLECT THE NEGATIVE

11 The perfect set All sets should be to true momentary muscular failure.
This is easier said than done… Most beginners and many experienced weight lifters take their sets to perceived muscular failure

12 Factors preventing reaching momentary muscular failure
Lack of experience Lack of pain tolerance Fear Fear of injury Fear of embarrassment Reaching true momentary muscular failure is an intense experience Your bodies may act in ways you aren’t expecting Facial and body contortions Involuntary yelling or moaning Vomiting Crying

13 A high intensity workout sample

14 Triple progressive overload
To stimulate hypertrophy of muscles, you need to progressively increase the intensity of your lifts. To do this, you should increase: Time under tension Amount of reps per set Weight

15 How many reps per set? For overall strength, power, and size, 8-12 reps is most efficient. Many power lifters will complete 3-6 reps per set. Endurance athletes may complete reps per set.

16 Types of exercises Multi-jointed exercises- exercise that causes movement in more than one joint. Works multiple muscles Squat –Knee, hip, a little of ankle Bench press- Elbow and shoulder Single-jointed- exercises that causes movement in only one joint Lateral raise- shoulder Bicep curl- elbow

17 Order of Exercise Post-exhaust cycle- A multi-jointed exercise that targets a large muscle followed by a single- jointed exercise that isolates that same muscle Bench press followed by Chest Flys

18 Order of exercise Pre-exhaust cycle- Single jointed exercise that isolates a single muscle, followed by a multi- jointed exercise that targets the same muscle. Leg extensions followed by Leg press

19 Hierarchy of fatigue When performing multi-jointed exercises, smaller synergist muscles will almost always fatigue before your target muscle during a set. For upper body pushing exercises, this muscle is almost always the triceps For upper body pulling exercises, this muscle is almost always the hand grip, followed by the bicep.



22 Lat Pullover!

23 Periodization of program

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