Presentation on theme: "Bell Work Tues. 2/17 ► 1. What evidence do scientists use to predict mega droughts? ► 2. What 2 Presidents were born in February? ► 3. Where is Warner."— Presentation transcript:
Who Attended the Constitutional Convention? Each state except Rhode Island sent delegates to Philadelphia to fix the flaws in the Articles of Confederation. Most of the 55 men were well-educated and experienced in politics. Native Americans, African Americans, and women were not included. -
Who Attended the Constitutional Convention? -Benjamin Franklin was the oldest delegate at 81. He was a diplomat, writer, inventor, and scientist. Two delegates–George Washington and James Madison–would later become presidents.
Thomas Jefferson and John Adams could not attend. They were in Europe as representatives of the United States government. Patrick Henry opposed the convention and did not attend. Who Attended the Constitutional Convention?
What Decisions Where Made? The delegates chose George Washington to preside. Washington chose a committee to set rules for conducting the convention. The committee decided that decisions would be made by majority vote, with each state having one vote. Delegates agreed to keep all discussions secret to enable all to speak freely.
No formal records were kept. Most of what we know comes from James Madison’s personal notebook of events. The delegates decided to discard the Articles of Confederation and write a new constitution. Thus the meeting came to be known as the Constitutional Convention. Who Attended the Constitutional Convention?
What Were the Two Opposing Plans? James Madison designed the Virginia Plan. It called for a government with three branches: the legislative branch (lawmakers), executive branch (to carry out the laws), and judicial branch (a system of courts to interpret and apply the laws). The legislature would have two houses, with the states represented by basis of population
What Were the Two Opposing Plans? The Virginia Plan appealed to the large states. The small states feared a government dominated by large states who would ignore their interests. The New Jersey Plan also called for three branches of government. The legislature would have one house and each state would get one vote. This plan would give equal power to large and small states.
What Compromises Were Made? -Roger Sherman’s committee proposed a Senate and a House of Representatives. Each state would have equal representation in the Senate. Representation in the House would be based on population. The delegates accepted this Great Compromise or Connecticut Plan.
What Compromises Were Made? Southern states wanted to count enslaved African Americans as part of their population in determining representation in the House. Northern states opposed this plan. In the Three-fifths Compromise, delegates agreed that every five enslaved persons would count as three free persons for determining congressional representation and figuring taxes. - Source: Data on House apportionment figures is from Harold W. Stanley and Richard G. Niemi, Vital Statistics In American Politics, 1997-1998 (Washington, DC: CQ Press, 1998), pp. 193-5; data on percentage of slaves in state populations is adapted by author from Donald L. Robinson, Slavery in the Structure of American Politics (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1971), pp. 23, 39, 180, 404. Information accessed and slightly modified from the following: http://www.wwnorton.com/college/polisci/lowi/lowi9/principles/ch02.asphttp://www.wwnorton.com/college/polisci/lowi/lowi9/principles/ch02.asp Accessed: 9/24/07
-Northern states wanted Congress to be able to regulate foreign trade and trade between the states. Southern states feared Congress would then tax their exports and stop the slave trade. They agreed to give Congress the power to regulate trade, but it could not tax exports or interfere with the slave trade before 1808. What Compromises Were Made?
Delegates disagreed on whether Congress or the voters should choose the president. The solution was the Electoral College, a group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president. Today, the voters in each state, not the legislators, choose electors. What Compromises Were Made?
Approving the Constitution Ratification required at least 9 of 13 state conventions to vote “yes.” Supporters of the constitution called themselves Federalists to emphasize that the Constitution would create a system of federalism A form of government in which power is divided between the federal, or national, government and the states. Federalists argued for a strong central government. Federalist Papers- Hamilton, Madison, and Jay
Approving the Constitution Opponents, the Anti- Federalists, wanted more power for the states and less for the national government. They also wanted a bill of rights to protect individual freedoms. Both agreed to add a bill of rights. This promise turned the tide.
Opponents, the Anti- Federalists, wanted more power for the states and less for the national government. They also wanted a bill of rights to protect individual freedoms. Both agreed to add a bill of rights. This promise turned the tide. Approving the Constitution Patrick Henry
The Constitution took effect when New Hampshire became the ninth state to ratify it on June 21, 1788. Approving the Constitution