 KS4 Physics Refraction.

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KS4 Physics Refraction

Refraction Refraction Refractive index Refraction effects Lenses
Contents Refraction Refraction Refractive index Refraction effects Lenses Summary activities

Refraction in water waves
When waves in water travel through water of different depths they change speed. In shallow water the waves slow down; in deeper water they speed up. We can investigate this by changing the depth of the water in a ripple tank. As the water waves slow down, their direction changes due to the change of speed. This is called refraction. Perspex sheet used to change depth of water

Why does refraction happen?
Imagine a car driving from the road into a muddy field. In the muddy field it slows down as there is more friction. mud road If it enters the field at an angle then the front tyres hit the mud at different times. tyre 2 tyre 1 Tyre 1 hits the mud first and will move more slowly than tyre 2. This causes the car to turn towards the normal. When the car leaves the mud for the road, tyre 1 hits the road before tyre 2 and this causes the car to turn away from the normal.

Why does refraction happen?
If the car approached the muddy field at an angle of incidence of 0° then both front tyres would hit the mud at the same time. The tyres would have the same speed relative to each other so the direction of the car would not change, it would just slow down.

This causes the light to bend or refract.
Refraction The speed of light waves depends on the material they are travelling through. air = fastest glass = slower diamond = slowest If light waves enter a different material (e.g. travelling from glass into air) the speed changes. This causes the light to bend or refract. air glass

Refraction at an air-glass boundary

What happens in refraction: air to glass
When light is refracted as it travels from air to glass: angle of incidence > angle of refraction  i >  r i > r As the light ray travels from air into glass it moves towards the normal. air glass In general, when light rays move from a less dense medium (air) to a more dense medium (glass) they ‘bend’ towards the normal.

Refraction through a glass box
What happens when a light ray passes from glass into air?

What happens in refraction: glass to air
When light is refracted as it travels from air to glass: angle of incidence < angle of refraction  i <  r As the light ray travels from glass into air it moves away from the normal. air glass In general, when light rays travel from a more dense medium (glass) to a less dense medium (air) they ‘bend’ away from the normal. i < r If the two surfaces of the block are parallel, then the ray at the start is parallel to the ray at the end.

Refraction – angle of incidence
What happens to light travelling from air through a glass block when the angle of incidence is 0°?  i = 0° When the angle of incidence is 0 the light ray is not deviated from its path. air glass undeviated light ray

Refraction Refraction Refractive index Refraction effects Lenses
Contents Refraction Refraction Refractive index Refraction effects Lenses Summary activities

Travelling through different materials
If you were running along a beach and then ran into the water when would you be moving slower – in the water or on the sand? In the water. In a similar way, as light moves from one medium to another of different density, the speed of light changes. Do you think light moves faster or slower in a more dense medium? Light moves slower through a more dense medium.

The speed of light Light travels at 300,000 km/s in a vacuum.
As light enters denser media, the speed of light decreases. From this bar chart, which material do you think is denser, glass or water? Glass must be denser than water because light travels more slowly through glass than water.

Refractive index = speed of light in air
The speed of light We can study refraction of light by comparing its speed in air to that in a different material. A number called the refractive index is the ratio of these two speeds: Refractive index = speed of light in air speed of air in material Example: The speed of light in air is 300,000,000 m/s, and the speed of light in water is 225,000,000 m/s. What is the refractive index of water? 1.33

Calculating refractive index
The speed of light in air is 300,000,000 m/s. The speed of light in crystal is 150,000,000 m/s. What is the refractive index of crystal? Refractive index = speed of light in air speed of light in crystal Refractive index = 300,000,000 150,000,000 Refractive index of crystal = 2.0

Refractive index = sin i
Snell’s law i r Refractive index = sin i sin r air glass Example: When a ray passes into a glass block, i = 45° and r = 28°. What is the refractive index of the glass? Refractive index = sin 45 sin 28 Refractive index = 1.5

Waves: Refraction Refraction Refractive index Refraction effects
Contents Waves: Refraction Refraction Refractive index Refraction effects Lenses Summary activities

Effects of refraction Many visual effects are caused by refraction.
This ruler appears bent because the light from one end of the ruler has been refracted, but light from the other end has travelled in a straight line. Would the ruler appear more or less bent if the water was replaced with glass?

Real and apparent depth
The rays of light from a stone get bent (refracted) as they leave the water. Your brain assumes these rays of light have travelled in straight lines. image Your brain forms an image at the place where it thinks the rays have come from – the stone appears to be higher than it really is. actual location

The Archer fish The Archer fish is a predator that shoots jets of water at insects near the surface of the water, e.g. on a leaf. The Archer fish allows for the refraction of light at the surface of the water when aiming at the prey. image of prey prey location The fish does not aim at the refracted image it sees but at a location where it knows the prey to be.

Magic coins Place a coin in the bottom of a bowl and clamp an empty cardboard tube so that it points above the coin. Gradually add water to the bowl and watch the coin through the tube float up – can you explain this?

Refraction Refraction Refractive index Refraction effects Lenses
Contents Refraction Refraction Refractive index Refraction effects Lenses Summary activities

ƒ F Refraction and lenses
Draw normal lines where the rays enter the air (at 90º to the surface). Work out how the ray is refracted as it enters the lens Draw normal lines (at 90° to the surface) for each ray. Imagine parallel rays of light from a distant object hitting the lens. Work out how the rays are refracted as the leave the lens The distance between the centre of the lens and F is called the focal length (). The lens refracts all the rays to a point called the principal focus (F). When light enters a more dense medium (e.g. glass), it bends towards the normal. When light enters a less dense medium (e.g. air), it bends away from the normal. ƒ

Convex lenses Convex lenses work by bending (refracting) rays of light to a principal focus. Convex lenses can be used to project or magnify images. The distance from the centre of the lens to the principal focus (F) is called the focal length (ƒ). The thicker the lens, the shorter the focal length.

How do light rays pass through lenses
Parallel light rays strike a convex lens They pass through the focal point of the lens. F Form a parallel beam if they pass though the focal point (F). Diverging light rays F

Finding the focal length of a lens
Hold the lens in the other hand and move it closer to the screen until a clear image appears. Hold a plain white screen in one hand. Chose a distant object (to get parallel rays of light). Use a ruler to measure the distance between the lens and the screen – this is the focal length (ƒ). ƒ

Ray diagram for an object >2F away
The image (l) is formed between F and 2F away from the lens, and is inverted and diminished.

Ray diagram for an object 2F away
Object at 2F O 2F F I The image (l) is formed at 2F away from the lens, is inverted and the same size.

Ray diagram for an object between 2F and F
Object between 2F and F away O 2F F The image (l) is formed further than 2F away from the lens, is inverted and magnified. I

Ray diagram for an object at F
Object at F away O 2F F The image (l) is formed at infinity – the rays never meet. This set up is used for searchlights.

Ray diagram for an object close than F
Object between F and lens O 2F F The virtual image (l) is formed on the same side of the lens as the object. It is the right way up and magnified.

Summary of images with a convex lens
Object position Image position Real or virtual Magnified or diminished Inverted or erect >2F at 2F between 2F and F at F between F and lens between F and 2F real diminished inverted at 2F real same size inverted > 2F real magnified inverted at infinity same side as object virtual magnified erect

Magnification = height of image
The magnification factor of a lens can be calculated by using this equation: Magnification = height of image height of object

Refraction Refraction Refractive index Refraction effects Lenses
Contents Refraction Refraction Refractive index Refraction effects Lenses Summary activities

Remember the word: TAGAGA Towards (normal) Air Glass
Revision tip Remember the word: TAGAGA Towards (normal) Air Glass Away (from normal)

Glossary convex lens – A lens that brings light rays to a focus. focal length – The distance from the centre of the lens to the principal focus. magnification – The size of the image relative to the size of the original object. refraction – The bending of light when it enters a different material. This happens because light changes direction and travels at a different speed when it enters different materials. refractive index – The ratio of the speed of light in air to the speed of light in another material.

Anagrams

Multiple-choice quiz