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Presentation on theme: "Viruses."— Presentation transcript:

1 Viruses

2 What is a Virus? Very small Non-living particle
Made up of nucleic acid and proteins Can only reproduce by infecting living cells Do not carry out respiration, grow or develop

3 Structure Viruses have an inner core which contains either RNA or DNA
The core consists of the viruses genetic material. Has outer coat called a capsid that is made up of proteins

4 Structure Capsid Nucleic Acid: DNA or RNA

5 Viruses have different shapes and sizes.
The arrangement of the proteins in the capsid of a virus determines the virus’s shape

6 Host Cell The cell in which a virus replicates
Before a virus can replicate it must enter a host cell Before it can enter a host cell it must first recognize and attach to a receptor site on the plasma membrane of the host cell.

7 Viral Infection Most viruses are highly specific to the cells they infect. Ex: Plant viruses only infect plants Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria Ex: bacteriophage T4 Viruses have two ways of infecting the host cell: -Lytic Infection -Lysogenic Infection

8 Bacteriaphage t4

9 Lytic Infection Lytic Cycle
virus injects its nucleic acid into the host takes over the host cells metabolism causes host cell to start replicating the viruses proteins and nucleic acids virus secretes enzymes that “lyse” the host cell’s cell wall and releases new virus particles these particles can attack other host cells Lytic Infection causes host cell to be “lysed” and destroyed.


11 Lysogenic Infection Lysogenic cycle
Lysogenic virus injects its nucleic acid into a host cell Viral DNA is integrated into the host cell’s chromosome→ provirus Every time host cell reproduces, the provirus is replicated along with it → every cell that originates from the infected host cell has a copy of the provirus


13 The lysogenic cycle can take place for many years
At any time the provirus can be activated and enter a lytic cycle host cell is killed


15 Viruses and Diseases Viruses cause human diseases such as polio, measles , influenza, and AIDS. Viruses attack and destroy certain cells in the body → causing symptoms of the disease The best way to prevent against viral diseases is to prevent infection through vaccination.


17 What is a vaccine? A preparation of a weakened or killed virus or viral protein When injected into the body, it stimulates the immune system in an effort to create permanent immunity to the disease For vaccines to be most effective it must be used before an infection begins.

18 Vaccines are used for the prevention of viral infections
Vaccines are NOT used for bacterial infections

19 The symptoms and incubation time of a disease can indicate how the virus acts inside its host cell.
Measles Rash, fever 9-11 days Shingles Pain, itching on skin Years Warts Bumpy areas on skin Months Coryza (cold) Sneezing, runny nose, fever 2-4 days HIV Fatigue, weight loss 2-5 years Which diseases may be caused by lytic viruses? Which diseases may be caused by lysogenic viruses?

20 Retroviruses Viruses that contain RNA as their genetic material
When retroviruses infect a cell they produce a DNA copy of their RNA. Called retroviruses because their genetic information is copied backwards From RNA to DNA instead of DNA to RNA Retroviruses are responsible for some types of cancer and HIV

21 Retroviruses and cancer
Retroviruses can cause some cancers Retroviruses that convert, or transform, normal cells → tumor viruses These viruses carry genes that disrupt the normal controls over cell growth and division

22 Retroviruses and cancer

23 HIV



26 Plant Viruses

27 Tobacco Mosaic Virus Was the first virus to be identified
Causes disease in tobacco plants

28 Knowledge check What characteristic do viruses share with all living organisms? Respiration Metabolism Replication Movement

29 Knowledge check A lytic infection occurs when a
Virus infects a bacterium and kills it immediately Virus embeds its genome into the DNA of the host cell Virus enters a cell, makes copies of itself, and causes the cell to burst Virus inserts its DNA into the DNA of the host cell and remains part of the host cell for many generations

30 Knowledge Check One group of viruses that contain RNA as their genetic information are Oncogenetic viruses Retroviruses Capsids Prophages

31 Knowledge Check Fill in the blanks The nucleic acid core of a virus contains ________ or __________ All viruses contain a coat of ________ and a core of _________

32 Videos seasons/lessons/lp_virus_videos.html#

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