Lifetime: Approximately 9 billion years Converts hydrogen to helium Lifetime: Approximately 9 billion years Converts hydrogen to helium Average Stars (such as our sun)
Hydrogen begins to runs out a Nuclear fusion can no longer occur Outer layers cool and expand outward Red Giant – large, cooling star that is running out of hydrogen Cool Fact: When this happens to our Sun, scientists hypothesize that it will extend out as far as the Earth or even Mars.
Core of the Red Giant collapses Outer layers of the star drift away. White Dwarf – Small, dense star that has burned out all it’s hydrogen Continues to produce heat in the core Cool Fact: Typically, a white dwarf has a radius equal to about 0.01 times that of the Sun, but it has a mass roughly equal to the Sun's. This gives a white dwarf a density about 1 million times that of water! density
White dwarf runs out of energy, cools to become a black dwarf Black Dwarf – small, dead star Cool Fact: There are no known black dwarves in the universe because stars take 10-100 billion years to cool… that is longer than our universe has existed!
Blue Giant: Lifetime = approximately 10 million years because they use up hydrogen very quickly Size = 10-1000 times the size of the Sun! Super hot Blue Giant: Lifetime = approximately 10 million years because they use up hydrogen very quickly Size = 10-1000 times the size of the Sun! Super hot Path #2: Massive Stars
Hydrogen starts to run out Star starts to fuse heavier elements The outer layers of the star cool and expand outward. Red Super Giant – Very large, cool, red star
They continue to burn for a time and expand to an even larger volume.
Cassiopeia A (Cas A, for short), the youngest supernova remnant in the Milky Way.
After a supernova, one of two things happen to a massive star: Neutron Star Or Black Hole
Small, dense core keeps collapsing Neutron Star: Gravity continues to press in on the star, causing it to create neutrons Pulsar: Rotating neutron star, releasing pulses of light and radio waves Cool Fact: According to astronomer and author Frank Shu, "A sugar cube of neutron-star stuff on Earth would weigh as much as all of humanity!"
The core of the most massive stars (at least 10x larger than the sun) will collapse and create a black hole. Gravity becomes so strong not even light can escape (which is why it’s called a “black hole”) Video: Simulation of gravitational lensing by a black hole, which distorts the image of a galaxy in the backgroundgravitational lensinggalaxy
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BH_LMC.png Cool Picture: This is a simulated view of a black hole in front of the Large Magellanic Cloud.