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The Urinary System: Anatomy and Physiology

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Presentation on theme: "The Urinary System: Anatomy and Physiology"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Urinary System: Anatomy and Physiology
Components Kidneys Ureters Urinary bladder Urethra

2 Organs of the Urinary System
Kidneys Ureters Urinary bladder Urethra

3 Function Remove nitrogenous wastes (urine)
Maintain electrolyte, acid-base, and fluid balance of blood Homeostatic organ Acts as blood filter Release hormones: calcitriol & erythropoietin Calcitriol increases the level of calcium (Ca2+) in the blood by increasing the uptake of calcium from the gut into the blood, and possibly increasing the release of calcium into the blood from bone

4 The Urinary System: Anatomy and Physiology
Kidneys are supplied with blood from renal arteries Located Retroperitoneally Lateral to T 12 – L 3 Vertebra

5 Relationship of Kidneys to Vertebra and Ribs

6 Nephrons About 1 million nephrons are in a kidney.
They are the functioning unit of the kidney

7 Nephrons Consists of a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule.
Glomerulus is a tangled cluster of blood capillaries that makes up a renal corpuscle Renal tubule leads away from the glomerulus


9 Formation of Urine Glomerular filtration initiates urine formation.
Plasma is filtered by the glomerular capillaries. Most of this fluid is reabsorbed into the bloodstream.

10 Formation of Urine Urine formation summary: Glomerular filtration
Reabsorption of substances Secretion of substances

11 General Functioning of the NEPHRON
blood General Functioning of the NEPHRON filtration tubular reabsorption and secretion urine “refreshed” blood

12 Formation of Urine Renin also controls the filtration rate.
Responds to three types of stimuli: Drop in blood pressure Sympathetic stimulation Decrease in chloride, potassium, and sodium ions

13 Formation of Urine Renin reacts with angiotensinogen to form angiotensin I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme converts to angiotensin II Helps maintain sodium and water balance Vasoconstricts the efferent arteriole Helps decrease glomerular filtration rate Stimulates kidneys to secrete aldosterone

14 Formation of Urine Atrial natriuretic peptide(ANP) increases sodium excretion by increasing the glomerular filtration rate.

15 Formation of Urine Urea is a result of amino acid catabolism.
Uric acid is a result of the metabolism of certain organic bases in nucleic acids. Urine is about 95% water. Contains urea and uric acid

16 Formation of Urine Ureter drains into the urinary bladder
Bladder empties to the outside of the body through the urethra 1.5 to 2 L of urine is extracted every day.

17 Sphincter Muscles on Bladder
Internal urethral sphincter: Smooth muscle Involuntary control More superiorly located External Urethral sphincter: Skeletal muscle Voluntary control Posteriorly located


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