Presentation on theme: "Tom Rand MD PhD St. Luke’s Children’s Infections and Immune Deficiency Clinic February 20, 2015."— Presentation transcript:
Tom Rand MD PhD St. Luke’s Children’s Infections and Immune Deficiency Clinic February 20, 2015
Herpes simplex virus Cytomegalovirus Hepatitis B virus West Nile virus Ebolavirus Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) Syphilis (Treponema pallidum) “some minor pathogens” Molecular diagnosis
Acyclovir dose for all neonatal management of HSV 60 mg/kg/day divided q 8 hr IV
* 10 days acyclovir therapy reserved for newborns diagnosed by surveillance cultures after exposure and before disease (“preemptive therapy”) * Kimberlin et al. “Guidance on management of asymptomatic neonates born to women with active genital herpes lesions” Pediatrics 131:e635-646, 2013
* 14 days IV acyclovir therapy for HSV disease confined to skin, eye, mucus membranes (SEM)
* 21 days of IV acyclovir therapy for CNS or disseminated HSV disease * For positive CSF PCR, repeat LP before end of therapy and treat additional week until negative CSF PCR
After completion of IV acyclovir therapy for neonatal HSV disease, continue suppressive oral acyclovir 300 mg/m 2 /dose TID for 6 months Kimberlin et al. “Oral acyclovir suppression and neurodevelopmental outcome after neonatal herpes” New England Journal of Medicine 365:1284-1292, 2011
* Lesion HSV culture * Pooled conjunctivae and pharynx swabs for HSV culture * Genital or rectal swab for HSV culture * CSF PCR, and routine CSF studies * Blood PCR * Hepatic chemistries and CBC
* Primary maternal infection * Reactivated maternal infection * New infection with different strain than primary infection
Failed newborn hearing screen with confirmation of sensorineural hearing loss of any degree prompts testing urine CMV culture. This is the responsibility of primary care provider to order testing and should not be deferred for specialty evaluation.
* We screen for hearing loss present in newborns * An unknown proportion of congenital CMV infections develop hearing loss beyond newborn period * No screening for congenital CMV per se
* Antiviral therapy for congenital CMV can prevent progressive hearing loss, but standard 6 weeks IV ganciclovir is too short to have an impact. * Hearing loss may progress in an infant that is not otherwise symptomatic from congenital CMV. “Asymptomatic” congenital CMV does not have recommendation to treat with IV ganciclovir. * Duration of oral valganciclovir therapy and selection of candidates for therapy are currently subjected to clinical trials.
Must test greater than month after final hep B vaccine (approximately 9 months): HBsAg Anti-HBs
* Tenofovir, lamivudine, and telbivudine current options If taking adefovir or entecavir, then change * Each drug has specific safety concerns, but actual experience in pregnancy is encouraging * Flare of hepatitis at end of pregnancy is common and can be controlled by antivirals * Demonstrated reduction of 1) mother to infant transmission 2) HBV DNA 3) hepatic issues
* Be sure women with chronic viral hepatitis B and C infection have a provider identified to continue to counsel and monitor liver disease. * Changes in therapies for hepatitis B and C have expanded options. Individuals that were previously discouraged from therapy have become promising candidates for newer therapies.
Please include hep B vaccine in standing orders for newborn. No one has a “low-risk population”! Important failsafe for all human and med record failures in prenatal HBsAg testing
* West Nile virus * Ebolavirus * Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)
Only a couple publications but consistent features of fetal infection with chorioretinitis and cerebral white matter disease Transmission by breastfeeding reported
Viral hemorrhagic fevers have exceedingly poor outcome during pregnancy. Most fetuses spontaneously aborted Obstetrical emergencies responsible for substantial transmission of ebolavirus to healthcare workers Death rate of ebolavirus-infected mothers 95% Mupapa et al. Journal of Infectious Diseases 179:S11012, 1999
For example, publications such as: Kuhn, Grave, Bransfield, and Harris. “Long term antibiotic therapy may be an effective treatment for children co-morbid with Lyme disease and Autism Spectrum Disorder” Medical Hypotheses 78:505- 615, 2012.
* Ixodes pacificus Lyme disease is geographically restricted by tick vector
Occasional reports of infection of fetus No consistent consequences of congenital infection No inflammation associated with spirochetes in tissues in the fetuses or babies reported Shapiro and Gerber, In Reminton & Klein Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant, 7 th ed, 2011, pp 564-576 Mylonas, Vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, 11:891-898, 2011
* 90% are diagnosed during erythema migrans * Disseminated manifestations are reversible with treatment, including carditis, cranial nerve palsies, meningitis * Arthritis may take months to resolve clinically after treatment * Existence of chronic Lyme disease has been refuted (for example Feder et al. New England Journal of Medicine 357:1422-1430, 2007)
Most Lyme disease is treated during symptoms of erythema migrans
* No relationship of the clinical problems leading to fatal outcome to the tissues where spirochetes were found * Appeared to be incidentally found in variety of adverse outcomes due to other causes
* Pregnancies treated for acute symptomatic Lyme disease (erythema migrans or other) no consequences * Seroconversions during pregnancy or seropositives at end of pregnancy no consequences * Birth defects no pattern or increased incidence
There is no reason to think that a burden of neurodevelopmental problems in children has resulted from undiagnosed congenital Lyme disease.