Presentation on theme: "CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE COPD Juliana Tambellini University of Pittsburgh."— Presentation transcript:
CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE COPD Juliana Tambellini University of Pittsburgh
COPD C hronic O bstructive P ulmonary D isease A progressive disease that affects the lungs, making it difficult to breathe
COPD: AN UMBRELLA TERM Umbrella term used to describe progressive lung diseases which include : Emphysema Chronic bronchitis Refractory (irreversible) asthma Severe bronchiectasis
OTHER NAMES FOR COPD Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COLD) Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease (CLRD)
COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung ailment that is characterized by a persistent blockage of airflow from the lungs. It is an under-diagnosed, life-threatening lung disease that interferes with normal breathing and is not fully reversible.
UNDERSTANDING COPD Critical to first understand normal lung function Image courtesy of The National Institute of health
LUNG STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION “Biological Science Freeman”, 2010
LUNGS WITH COPD Image courtesy of The National Institute of health
CAUSES Most cases of COPD occur as a result of long-term exposure to lung irritants that damage the lungs and the airways The most common irritant that causes COPD is cigarette smoke In rare cases, a genetic condition called alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency may play a role in causing COPD
WHO IS AT RISK? People who smoke or are exposed to smoke People who have a family history of COPD are more likely to develop the disease if they smoke Long-term exposure to other lung irritants also is a risk factor for COPD Almost 90% of COPD deaths occur in low- and middle- income countries, where effective strategies for prevention and control are not always implemented or accessible.
SYMPTOMS breathlessness abnormal sputum (a mix of saliva and mucus in the airway) a chronic cough daily activities can become very difficult as the condition gradually worsens
DIAGNOSIS A simple diagnostic test called "spirometry“ measures how much air a person can inhale and exhale, and how fast air can move into and out of the lungs Spirometry can detect COPD long before its Symptoms appear.
TREATMENT COPD has no cure Quitting smoking is the most important step an individual can take to treat COPD Other treatments for COPD may include medicines, vaccines, pulmonary rehabilitation (rehab), oxygen therapy, and surgery
MANAGING COPD COPD symptoms usually slowly worsen over time A cold, the flu, or a lung infection may cause symptoms to intensify Prescription antibiotics may treat infections and other medicines, such as bronchodilators and inhaled steroids, can help facilitate breathing
MANAGING COPD Avoid lung irritants Get ongoing care Manage the disease and its symptoms Prepare for emergencies
COPD: STATISTICS The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) estimates that 12 million adults have COPD, and another 12 million are undiagnosed or developing COPD Estimated that over 210 million people worldwide have COPD
COPD: STATISTICS COPD cost the U.S. economy about $32.1 billion, in direct and indirect costs in 2002 A person with COPD dies every four minutes in the U.S COPD will be the third leading cause of death in the U.S. by 2020
WHO RESPONSE Raise awareness about the global epidemic of chronic diseases Create more healthy environments, especially for poor and disadvantaged populations Decrease common chronic disease risk factors, such as tobacco use, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity Prevent premature deaths and avoidable disabilities from major chronic diseases
SOURCES The World Health Organization http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs315/en/ The COPD Foundation http://www.copdfoundation.org/ The US Department of Health and Human Services http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Copd/Co pd_WhatIs.html National Heart Lung and Blood Institute http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/lung/other/copd _breathe.htm Center for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov/