2 Course ObjectivesTo recognize the normal rhythm of the heart - “Normal Sinus Rhythm.”To recognize the 13 most common heart arrhythmias.To recognize an acute myocardial infarction and bundle branch blocks on a 12-lead ECG.
3 Learning Modules ECG Basics How to Analyze a Rhythm Normal Sinus RhythmHeart ArrhythmiasDiagnosing a Myocardial InfarctionAdvanced 12-Lead Interpretation
4 The 12-Lead ECGThe 12-Lead ECG contains a wealth of information. In Module V you learned that ST segment elevation in two leads is suggestive of an acute myocardial infarction. In this module we will cover:ST Elevation and non-ST Elevation MIsLeft Ventricular HypertrophyBundle Branch Blocks
5 ST Elevation and non-ST Elevation MIs When myocardial blood supply is abruptly reduced or cut off to a region of the heart, a sequence of events occur beginning with ischemia (inadequate tissue perfusion), followed by necrosis (infarction), and eventual fibrosis (scarring) if the blood supply isn't restored in an appropriate period of time.The ECG changes over time with each of these events…
6 ECG Changes Ways the ECG can change include: ST elevation & depression Appearance of pathologic Q-wavesT-wavespeaked flattened inverted
7 ECG Changes & the Evolving MI Non-ST ElevationThere are two distinct patterns of ECG change depending if the infarction is:ST ElevationST Elevation (Transmural or Q-wave), orNon-ST Elevation (Subendocardial or non-Q-wave)
8 ST Elevation Infarction The ECG changes seen with a ST elevation infarction are:Before injuryNormal ECGIschemiaST depression, peaked T-waves, then T-wave inversionInfarctionST elevation & appearance of Q-wavesFibrosisST segments and T-waves return to normal, but Q-waves persist
9 ST Elevation Infarction Here’s a diagram depicting an evolving infarction:A. Normal ECG prior to MIB. Ischemia from coronary artery occlusion results in ST depression (not shown) and peaked T-wavesC. Infarction from ongoing ischemia results in marked ST elevationD/E. Ongoing infarction with appearance of pathologic Q-waves and T-wave inversionF. Fibrosis (months later) with persistent Q- waves, but normal ST segment and T- waves
10 ST Elevation Infarction Here’s an ECG of an acute inferior wall MI:Look at the inferior leads (II, III, aVF).Question: What ECG changes do you see?ST elevation and Q-wavesExtra credit: What is the rhythm?Atrial fibrillation (irregularly irregular with narrow QRS)!
11 Non-ST Elevation Infarction Here’s an ECG of an inferior wall MI later in time:Now what do you see in the inferior leads?ST elevation, Q-waves and T-wave inversion
12 Non-ST Elevation Infarction The ECG changes seen with a non-ST elevation infarction are:Before injuryNormal ECGIschemiaST depression & T-wave inversionInfarctionST depression & T-wave inversionFibrosisST returns to baseline, but T-wave inversion persists
13 Non-ST Elevation Infarction Here’s an ECG of an evolving non-ST elevation MI:Note the ST depression and T-wave inversion in leads V2-V6.Question: What area of the heart is infarcting?Anterolateral
15 Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Compare these two 12-lead ECGs. What stands out as different with the second one?The QRS complexes are very tall (increased voltage)NormalLeft Ventricular HypertrophyAnswer:
16 Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Why is left ventricular hypertrophy characterized by tall QRS complexes?Increased QRS voltageAs the heart muscle wall thickens there is an increase in electrical forces moving through the myocardium resulting in increased QRS voltage.LVHECHOcardiogram
17 Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Specific criteria exists to diagnose LVH using a 12-lead ECG.For example:The R wave in V5 or V6 plus the S wave in V1 or V2 exceeds 35 mm.However for now, all you need to know is that the QRS voltage increases with LVH.
19 Bundle Branch Blocks Turning our attention to bundle branch blocks… Remember normal impulse conduction isSA node AV node Bundle of His Bundle Branches Purkinje fibers
20 Normal Impulse Conduction Sinoatrial nodeAV nodeBundle of HisBundle BranchesPurkinje fibers
21 Bundle Branch BlocksSo, depolarization of the Bundle Branches and Purkinje fibers are seen as the QRS complex on the ECG.Right BBBTherefore, a conduction block of the Bundle Branches would be reflected as a change in the QRS complex.
22 Bundle Branch BlocksWith Bundle Branch Blocks you will see two changes on the ECG.QRS complex widens (> 0.12 sec).QRS morphology changes (varies depending on ECG lead, and if it is a right vs. left bundle branch block).Look at the V leads to recognize Bundle Branch Blocks
23 Bundle Branch Blocks Why does the QRS complex widen? When the conduction pathway is blocked it will take longer for the electrical signal to pass throughout the ventricles because the impulse has to travel from cell to cell inefficiently.
24 Right Bundle Branch Blocks What QRS morphology is characteristic?For RBBB the wide QRS complex assumes a unique, virtually diagnostic shape (upright “rabbit ears”) in those leads overlying the right ventricle, V1 and V2.V1“Rabbit Ears”
25 Left Bundle Branch Blocks What QRS morphology is characteristic?For LBBB the wide QRS complex assumes a wide predominantly downward deflection leads opposite the left ventricle, i.e., V1 and V2 (right ventricular leads) and the QRS is upright and wide in V5 and V6 (may or may not be notched)
26 Guess: RBBB or LBBB?Wide QRSRabbit Ears in V1 and V2= RBBB!
27 Guess: RBBB or LBBB? = LBBB! Recall that in either RBBB or LBBB, Wide QRSMostly down in V1 and V2Mostly up in lead V6= LBBB!Recall that in either RBBB or LBBB,the QRS must be wide (> .12 sec)
28 What causes BBBs? Coronary artery disease Thickened, stiffened or weakened heart muscle (cardiomyopathy)Infection (myocarditis) of the heart muscleHypertensionScar tissue after heart surgeryCongenital abnormality
29 Summary This Module introduced you to: ST Elevation and Non-ST Elevation MIsLeft Ventricular HypertrophyBundle Branch BlocksDon’t worry too much right now about trying to remember all the details. You’ll focus more on advanced ECG interpretation in your clinical years!
30 End of Module VI Advanced 12-Lead Interpretation Proceed to Module VI Practice Quiz on your iROCKET Course