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Motivation Driving force behind all actions and behaviors Variables ◦ Self Efficacy ◦ Need for Achievement ◦ Teacher Expectations ◦ Reinforcement ◦ Ability.

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Presentation on theme: "Motivation Driving force behind all actions and behaviors Variables ◦ Self Efficacy ◦ Need for Achievement ◦ Teacher Expectations ◦ Reinforcement ◦ Ability."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Motivation Driving force behind all actions and behaviors Variables ◦ Self Efficacy ◦ Need for Achievement ◦ Teacher Expectations ◦ Reinforcement ◦ Ability ◦ Environment ◦ Goals ◦ Interest / curiosity ◦ Imitation ◦ Anxiety ◦ Reinforcement ◦ Enthusiasm

3 Various Views of Learning & Motivation Behavioral Cognitive Constructivist Social Cognitive Humanistic Sociocultural

4 Theories Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of needs Behavior is controlled by both internal and external factors We make choices and exercise free-will B.F. Skinner Behaviorist Behavior is determined by the reinforcer or reward Behavior is learned

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6 Theories Cont. Albert Bandura Social Cognitive Knowledge based on social and environmental interactions Jean Piaget & Lev Vygotsky Constructivist Knowledge constructed on personal or social experiences

7 Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation What is your student’s motivation?

8 Extrinsic Motivation Externally-Based ◦ Rewards ◦ Fear Just-For-Now Results ◦ Students complete the assignment just for the reward at the end or the fear that is instilled in them, NOT for themselves and NOT for educational benefit.

9 Extrinsic Motivation (contd.) Extrinsically motivated students reach for assignments with a lower level of difficulty so the assignment is quicker to complete. Extrinsic motivation lasts with a student only until the next reward is offered or until the fear is settled. Extrinsic motivation is a “quick fix” that is actually a negative approach to teaching.

10 Intrinsic Motivation Student-Based ◦ The reward of enjoying an assignment ◦ The results are self-determined Self-Efficacy ◦ Students want to do the assignments well for themselves ◦ Students complete the assignment for themselves, NOT just for a grade.

11 Intrinsic Motivation (contd.) Intrinsically motivated students reach for assignments with a higher level of difficulty. Intrinsic motivation lasts with a student much longer than extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is harder to find within a student.

12 How Would You Motivate Your Student?

13 Motivating Students Motivation depends on the extent in which teachers are able to meet the students’ needs. ◦ Control ◦ Competent ◦ Connected

14 How To Help Students Feel In Control! Input in their learning goals and activities Assist in writing classroom rules and procedures Decide to work in groups or individuals Cooperative learning- let them select learning partners

15 How to Help Students Feel Competent! Make assignments challenging Lessons interesting & relevant Ask questions they can answer Know their background to help motivate

16 How to Help Students Feel Connected! Climate or culture of trust, respect, & caring Feel competent as a whole group Family or Community feeling

17 Motivational Tips Make sure your room is safe and accommodates the student’s needs. (Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs) Organization (Classrooms and Lessons) Set goals and give regular feedback Collaborative Learning Provide Reinforcement and Encouragement

18 Harry Wong’s Motivational Tips Utilize Humor in the Classroom Respect the Student Be inviting What Motivates You as a student?

19 Hindrances to Motivation The student’s needs are not being met. The teacher has a negative attitude towards the students or their work. The student experiences negative peer- interactions. The student has low self-esteem. The classroom is unorganized. The assignments are unclear.

20 Overcoming Hindrances Make sure the student’s needs are met. Create a positive classroom environment. Approach challenges with a positive attitude. Encourage group collaboration. Create an organized classroom. Design Lessons that are organized and comprehensive.

21 Motivating the Unmotivated What would you say if I told you there is a lot teachers can do about it?

22 Eight Simple Steps for Motivating Students Give them something real- local events or news, technology, student culture, interests or relationships Supply choices- creates autonomy and gives students a voice Challenge students- assess each individuals level of learning, and create a challenge that is just above their current ability

23 Eight Simple Steps for Motivating Students, continued Present role models- guest speakers, peers, or other students give relevance to school subjects Peer models- learning from a peer who succeeds with a task…This includes: gender and/or ethnic groups, social circles, age, interests, or levels of achievement Help struggling students strategize- give specific strategies that teach students how to learn

24 Eight Simple Steps for Motivating Students, continued Develop a sense of belonging- the teacher creates this by being warm and open, encouraging of student participation, friendly, helpful, organized and prepared for teaching, and is enthusiastic Use a supportive teaching style- the teacher listens, encourages, responds to student questions, and empathizes with students

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