2Motivation Driving force behind all actions and behaviors Variables Self EfficacyNeed for AchievementTeacher ExpectationsReinforcementAbilityEnvironmentGoalsInterest / curiosityImitationAnxietyReinforcementEnthusiasm
3Various Views of Learning & Motivation BehavioralCognitiveConstructivistSocial CognitiveHumanisticSociocultural
4Theories Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of needs Behavior is controlled by both internal and external factorsWe make choices and exercise free-willB.F. SkinnerBehavioristBehavior is determined by the reinforcer or rewardBehavior is learned
6Jean Piaget & Lev Vygotsky Theories Cont.Albert BanduraSocial CognitiveKnowledge based on social and environmental interactionsJean Piaget & Lev VygotskyConstructivistKnowledge constructed on personal or social experiences
7Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation What is your student’s motivation?
8Extrinsic Motivation Externally-Based Just-For-Now Results Rewards FearJust-For-Now ResultsStudents complete the assignment just for the reward at the end or the fear that is instilled in them, NOT for themselves and NOT for educational benefit.
9Extrinsic Motivation (contd.) Extrinsically motivated students reach for assignments with a lower level of difficulty so the assignment is quicker to complete.Extrinsic motivation lasts with a student only until the next reward is offered or until the fear is settled.Extrinsic motivation is a “quick fix” that is actually a negative approach to teaching.
10Intrinsic Motivation Student-Based Self-Efficacy The reward of enjoying an assignmentThe results are self-determinedSelf-EfficacyStudents want to do the assignments well for themselvesStudents complete the assignment for themselves, NOT just for a grade.
11Intrinsic Motivation (contd.) Intrinsically motivated students reach for assignments with a higher level of difficulty.Intrinsic motivation lasts with a student much longer than extrinsic motivation.Intrinsic motivation is harder to find within a student.
13Motivating Students Control Competent Connected Motivation depends on the extent in which teachers are able to meet the students’ needs.ControlCompetentConnected
14How To Help Students Feel In Control! Input in their learning goals and activitiesAssist in writing classroom rules and proceduresDecide to work in groups or individualsCooperative learning- let them select learning partners
15How to Help Students Feel Competent! Make assignments challengingLessons interesting & relevantAsk questions they can answerKnow their background to help motivate
16How to Help Students Feel Connected! Climate or culture of trust, respect, & caringFeel competent as a whole groupFamily or Community feeling
17Motivational TipsMake sure your room is safe and accommodates the student’s needs. (Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs)Organization (Classrooms and Lessons)Set goals and give regular feedbackCollaborative LearningProvide Reinforcement and Encouragement
18Harry Wong’s Motivational Tips Utilize Humor in the ClassroomRespect the StudentBe invitingWhat Motivates You as a student?
19Hindrances to Motivation The student’s needs are not being met.The teacher has a negative attitude towards the students or their work.The student experiences negative peer- interactions.The student has low self-esteem.The classroom is unorganized.The assignments are unclear.
20Overcoming Hindrances Make sure the student’s needs are met. Create a positive classroom environment.Approach challenges with a positive attitude.Encourage group collaboration.Create an organized classroom.Design Lessons that are organized and comprehensive.
21Motivating the Unmotivated What would you say if I told you there is a lot teachers can do about it?
22Eight Simple Steps for Motivating Students Give them something real- local events or news, technology, student culture, interests or relationshipsSupply choices- creates autonomy and gives students a voiceChallenge students- assess each individuals level of learning, and create a challenge that is just above their current ability
23Eight Simple Steps for Motivating Students, continued Present role models- guest speakers, peers, or other students give relevance to school subjectsPeer models- learning from a peer who succeeds with a task…This includes: gender and/or ethnic groups, social circles, age, interests, or levels of achievementHelp struggling students strategize- give specific strategies that teach students how to learn
24Eight Simple Steps for Motivating Students, continued Develop a sense of belonging- the teacher creates this by being warm and open, encouraging of student participation, friendly, helpful, organized and prepared for teaching, and is enthusiasticUse a supportive teaching style- the teacher listens, encourages, responds to student questions, and empathizes with students