Functions of Plant Parts: An introduction to our exciting exploration of botany
Lesson Objectives: Identify major internal structures, external structures, methods of locomotion, methods of reproduction and stages of development of plants: flowerpistilstyle filament pollenfruitovaryanther rootsstem leavesstomata xylemphloemtranspiration node
Plants The plant kingdom is divided into both nonvascular and vascular plants.
Vascular Plants that have specialized tissues that move materials through the plant’s body and provides strength, stability and support to the plant.
Non-vascular They are low growing and do not have roots. They obtain water and nutrients directly from their surroundings.
Roots- the part of a plant that has no leaves or buds and usually spreads underground, anchoring the plant and absorbing water and nutrients from the soil
Roots: » Absorb and translocate water and nutrients to the stem that are taken up through the root hairs » Store food in the form of starch
Plant Tropisms Tropism is the movement of all or part of an organism in response to an external stimulus, such as light. Plant growth toward a stimulus is a a positive tropism. Plant growth away from a stimulus is a negative tropism.
The Leaf: » The place where photosynthesis takes place. »The place that carries out transpiration and cools the plant.
Stomata (singular, stoma) are openings in a leaf or stem that enable gas exchange to occur. Each stoma is opened and closed by two guard cells. Transpiration is the process by which plants release water vapor into the air through stomata. If too much water is lost, a plant wilts.
Stem Transport nutrients from the roots to the leaves in the vessels of the XYLEM and PHLOEM. Supports the leaves of a plant and also the fruit and flowers
There are two types of vascular tissue in plants: – Xylem is the type of tissue in vascular plants that provides support and conducts water and nutrients from the roots. – Phloem is the tissue that conducts food in vascular plants.
Flower power: » Flower: The reproductive structure of some seed-bearing plants, characteristically having either specialized male or female organs or both male and female organs, enclosed in an outer envelope of petals and sepals.
If you look carefully at a flower, you will see that it is made up of many different parts. Each part has an important job to do.
Sepals The sepals protect the flower before it opens. sepal
Petals The petals attract pollinating insects with their bright colour and attractive scent.
Stamens The stamens are the male part of the flower. The plant makes pollen in the part of the stamen called the anther. stamen anther
Pistil the female ovule- bearing part of a flower composed of ovary and style and stigma
The Stigma The stigma is the top of the female part of the flower. The pollen from another flower collects on the stigma’s sticky surface. stigma
The Ovary The ovary protects the ovules (eggs). Pollen travels to the ovules and fertilization takes place. Now the ovules will develop into seeds. pollen ovule ovary
Style slender part of a pistil, situated between the ovary and the stigma.
Fabulous fruit functions: » The fruit is a ripened ovule together with its associated parts, and often protects the seed. » Some plants have a dry dehiscent fruit which, when split open helps disseminate seeds. a) some actually hurl the seeds out as the seed surface explodes b) others have wings, or other ways to float or be carried by air
Can always use more fruit… » Can provide nutrients to the soil and to a newly germinating seedling » Some fruits help disperse seeds by providing food for animals: a) animals eat the fruit and seeds. The fruit is digested and the seeds pass out in the animals’ feces at (presumably) another location. Like this nice Big buck
Seed A mature fertilized ovule of angiosperms and gymnosperms that contains an embryo and the food it will need to grow into a new plant.
these attract insects where the pollen is made pollen sticks to this where the seeds grow These protect the flower before it opens Write the correct words in the boxes: stamens, stigma, petals, ovary, sepals