Presentation on theme: "(The Coastal Zone and Waves)"— Presentation transcript:
1 (The Coastal Zone and Waves) Monday March 26, 2012(The Coastal Zone and Waves)
2 The Launch Pad Monday, 3/26/12 What happens to the water pressure, temperature, and light levels as you dive deeper and deeper under the sea, and why?Water pressure increases because more and more water is above you and is pressing down with its weight. Temperature and light levels decrease because there is less and less solar radiation as you go deeper.
3 WS – Ocean Water Movements F 3/19 3/21 WS – Ocean Surface Circulation Assignment Currently OpenSummative or FormativeDate IssuedDate DueDate Into Grade SpeedLast DayQuiz 23S43/93/30WS – Ocean Water MovementsF3/193/21WS – Ocean Surface Circulation3/203/22Quiz 24S53/23
4 I will be available after school today until 4:45. AnnouncementsI will be available after school today until 4:45.
5 Click below for article: Latest NewsJames Cameron Makes First Ever Successful Solo Dive to Mariana Trench -- Ocean's Deepest PointClick below for article:
6 The Coastal Zone and Waves Begin WorksheetThe Coastal Zone and Waves
7 The Coastal Zone A shoreline; it is the contact between land and sea. The shore is the area between the lowest tidal level and highest areas affected by storm waves.The coastline is the seaward edge of the coast.A beach is an accumulation of sediment along the landward margin of the ocean.
9 WavesWaves are created by energy traveling along the interface between ocean and atmosphere (the surface.)Waves derive their energy and motion from wind.The major parts of a wave are:the crestthe trough
10 Wave height is the distance between a trough and a crest. Wave MeasurementsWave period is the time interval for one full wave to pass a fixed position.Wavelength is the horizontal distance between successive crests (or troughs.)
11 Characteristics and Movement of a Wave Figure 15.12
12 Waves Wave height, length, and period depend upon: the wind speed the length of time the wind blows.Fetch is the distance that the wind travels.As the wave travels, the water passes energy along by moving in a circleThe waveform (energy) moves forward.At a depth of about one-half the wavelength, the movement of water particles becomes negligible (called the wave base.)
13 Changes That Occur When a Wave Moves Onto Shore Figure 15.14
14 Wave Erosion Wave erosion is caused by wave impact and pressure. Wave erosion breaks down rock material and supplies sand to beaches.The sawing and grinding action of water armed with rock fragments is called abrasion.
15 Sand Movement on the Beach Beaches are composed of whatever material is available.
16 Sand Movement on the Beach Some beaches have a significant biological component.
17 Sand Movement on the Beach Beach material does not stay in one place.Wave energy moves large quantities of sand parallel and perpendicular to the shoreline.
18 Beach and Shoreline Processes Wave refraction is the bending of a wave so that the wave arrives parallel to the shoreThe result of wave refraction is that wave energy is concentrated against the sides and ends of headland.Wave erosion straightens an irregular shoreline
19 Beach and Shoreline Processes Longshore transport consists of the movement of sediments (generally sand, but may also consist of coarser sediments such as gravels) along a coast at an angle to the shoreline, which is dependent on prevailing wind direction.
20 Beach and Shoreline Processes Beach drift is one of the most important transport mechanisms results from wave refraction.Since waves rarely break onto a shore at right angles, the upward movement of water onto the beach (swash) occurs at an oblique angle.However, the return of water (backwash) is at right angles to the beach, resulting in the net movement of beach material laterally.This movement is known as beach drift.The endless cycle of swash and backwash and resulting beach drift can be observed on all beaches. – sediment moves in a zigzag pattern along the beach face.
21 Beach and Shoreline Processes Longshore current is current that flows in the surf zone.Longshore current flows parallel to the shore, and moves substantially more sediment than beach drift.
22 Beach Drift and Longshore Currents Figure 15.18
33 Shoreline FeaturesDepositional FeaturesBarrier islands occur mainly along the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains.They run parallel the coast and can originate in several ways.
34 Stabilizing the ShoreShoreline erosion is influenced by several local factorsthe proximity to sediment-laden riversthe degree of tectonic activitythe topography and composition of the landthe prevailing wind and weather patternsthe configuration of the coastline
35 Stabilizing the Shore Responses to Erosion Problems “Hard stabilization” refers to building structures to lessen the effects of shoreline erosion.Types of structuresGroins are barriers built at a right angles to the beach that are designed to trap sand.Breakwaters are barriers built offshore and parallel to the coast to protect boats from breaking waves.Seawalls armors the coast against the force of breaking waves.Often these structures are not effective.
36 Responses to Erosion Problems Stabilizing the ShoreResponses to Erosion ProblemsAlternatives to hard stabilization:In beach nourishment, sand is added to the beach system.Relocating buildings away from a beach
37 Miami Beach Before and After Beach Nourishment Figure A
38 Responses to Erosion Problems Stabilizing the ShoreResponses to Erosion ProblemsShoreline erosion problems are different along the different U.S. coasts.Along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, development occurs mainly on barrier islands that face the open ocean.These islands receive the full force of storms.Development has taken place more rapidly than our understanding of barrier island dynamics.
39 Stabilizing the ShoreResponses to Erosion ProblemsShoreline erosion problems are different along the different U.S. coasts.The Pacific Coast is characterized by relatively narrow beaches backed by steep cliffs and mountain ranges.The major problem here is the narrowing of the beaches.Sediment for beaches is interrupted by dams and reservoirs; therefore, rapid erosion occurs along the beaches.
40 Coastal Classification Shoreline classification is difficult, and is based mainly on changes with respect to sea level.An emergent coast is caused by an uplift of the land, or a drop in sea level.
41 Coastal Classification Features of an emergent coast include:wave-cut cliffsmarine terraces
42 Coastal Classification Submergent coasts are caused when the land adjacent to the sea subsides, or sea level rises.Features of a submergent coast include:a highly irregular shorelineestuaries – drowned river mouths
43 Major Estuaries Along the East Coast of the United States
44 The Coastal Zone and Waves Complete WorksheetThe Coastal Zone and Waves