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The American Colonies.

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Presentation on theme: "The American Colonies."— Presentation transcript:

1 The American Colonies


3 May 13, 1607: Arrival of 104 Male Settlers
Jamestown, VA May 13, 1607: Arrival of 104 Male Settlers

4 WHY? For what reasons did individuals come to America?

5 Colonizing America Wealth

6 Colonizing America Religious dissent

7 Types of Colonies Royal Colonies King Ruled by royal governor

8 Types of Colonies Proprietary Individuals or groups King gifted land

9 Types of Colonies Charter Established by charters King
Colonies governed themselves

10 Regional Divisions

11 New England Colonies

12 Massachusetts (1620) Pilgrims (Plymouth) Separatists 1st Thanksgiving
wanted to separate from the Anglican Church 1st Thanksgiving Mayflower Compact 41 men drew up the agreement to outline fair and equal laws for the colony; signed on the Mayflower 1620

13 Massachusetts (1630) Puritans John Winthrop
Purify and reform Anglican Church Massachusetts Bay Colony Strict religious beliefs; radical John Winthrop “for wee must Consider that wee shall be as a Citty upon a Hill, the eies of all people are uppon us; soe that if wee shall deale falsely with our god in this worke wee have undertaken and soe cause him to withdrawe his present help from us” City Upon A Hill, 1630

14 New Hampshire (1630) John Mason English and Scots-Irish settlers
Economic freedom Settled for religious freedom Escape for those constricted by harsh religious and economic rules of the Puritans Royal Colony

15 Rhode Island (1636) Connecticut (1636) Roger Williams
Exiled by Puritans in Mass. settled in Providence Religious freedom Trade Connecticut (1636) Thomas Hooker Dutch (economic freedom) and English (religious freedom) Asked to leave by Mass. Agriculture and trade

16 Middle Colonies

17 New York (1626) New Jersey (1660) Delaware (1638) Peter Minuit
Dutch (Netherlands), taken over by English Trade and profits Anglican Proprietary to royal colony New Jersey (1660) Lord Berkley Established by Sweden became English Agriculture, trade and profits Delaware (1638) Dutch, Swedish and English Farming, trade and profits Proprietary

18 Pennsylvania (1682) Quakers William Penn Proprietary
Home to many European Immigrants: Swedish, Dutch, English, Scots-Irish and German Farming Quakers Equality and all possessed “Inner Light” Pennsylvania

19 Southern Colonies

20 Virginia (1607) Jamestown 1st permanent settlement mostly males (indentured servants and treasure hunters) 60/900 colonists survived Ruled by John Smith Founded by the Virginia Company Joint-stock company: organized to raise money by selling stocks/shares to investors Becomes royal House of Burgesses (1619)-22 representatives called burgesses met to outline laws for the colony

21 Maryland (1634) George Calvert Religious freedom for Catholics Established for trade, finding precious metals and to locate a water passage across the continent Farming Proprietary

22 Maryland Act of Toleration
1649 Granted freedom of worship for all Catholics Symbolic beginning of freedom of religion

23 North Carolina (1653) South Carolina (1670) Georgia (1733)
Group of proprietors: business venture Settlers from Virginia Farming, trade and profit Anglican South Carolina (1670) Group of proprietors Settlers from France, English, Africans and Irish Food crops Proprietary to royal Georgia (1733) General James Oglethorpe Spanish settlements taken by English Debtors and convicts protect colonies from Spanish and French invasions Slow economic growth farmed, harvested lumber and traded furs

24 The Charter of Carolina 1663

25 Ethnic and Religious Diversity

26 Discrimination in Massachusetts
Salem Witch Trials

27 Discrimination in Massachusetts
Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams Banished from Massachusetts

28 Discrimination African Americans Native Americans Free Slaves
Pushed off land by westward settlers

29 Religious Tolerance Roger Williams Providence, RI Pennsylvania
English Quakers German Lutherans Scotch-Irish Presbyterians Swiss Mennonites New York linguistic and cultural diversity First synagogue

30 Colonial Economy

31 Economic Diversity: -South= Agriculture -North = Commerce -Towns and cities develop along water

32 Economy Mercantilism Economic policy Europe Way to get rich
Export more than you import Effect= Britain creates rules for colonial trade

33 Commerce and Immigrants (New England)
Port cities Boston Immigrant population increases due to religious freedom and economic opportunities (German, Scotch-Irish, Dutch) More towns in North than Southern colonies Use town meetings to govern

34 New England Colonies Shipbuilding Fishing
Smaller farms self-sufficient

35 Middle Colonies’ Economy
Diverse in people and business Less slaves Shops, homes and farms

36 Middle Colonies’ Economy
Farming Wheat, barley, rye Commerce Access to water Shipping overseas New York and Philadelphia

37 Southern Economy John Rolfe and tobacco Plantations develop
Virginia, Maryland, NC Plantations develop Need for labor Indentured servants Agree to work for landowner 4-7 years slavery

38 Southern Plantation Systems
Exported cash crops to make money Creates: (1) Large farms around rivers (2) Need for lots of labor (3) Wealthy class of plantation owners


40 Slave Trade First slaves were captured Native Americans
African slave trade flourished by 1700s Slaves endured a harsh voyage: Middle Passage Widespread use in Southern colonies

41 Colonial Society Ethnic Diversity -African Americans -Native Americans
Class Distinctions Women Wealth = power


43 Bacon’s Rebellion Virginia, 1676 Cause: Nathaniel Bacon Failed!
Small farmers treated unfairly; wealthy landowners paid fewer taxes and received many benefits Nathaniel Bacon Failed! Result: Need for representation in government for the “common man”

44 Colonial Government Britain allows the colonies to govern themselves
Salutary neglect Colonial legislatures hold the power

45 1.2 Self-Government and the Colonies
Ancient Greece ( BC) Greeks practiced democracy People vote directly Romans created a republic (500 BC) Representative democracy

46 1.2 Self-Government and the Colonies
Middle Ages ( AD) Republics fade Autocracies develop Government ruled by a single sovereign Renaissance (1450 AD) “Rebirth” Reconnection to ancient Greece and Rome Classical republicanism

47 1.2 Self-Government and the Colonies
Post Middle Ages Limited government Government that must obey a set of laws Usually a written document Magna Carta or “Great Charter” (1215 AD) Prevented king from imposing taxes Needed approval of a council  British Parliament English Bill of Rights (1689 AD) Power to Parliament King could not interfere with Parliamentary elections or impose taxes Common Law Originated in Middle Ages Law based on tradition or past court decisions instead of written statutes

48 The English Government
Magna Carta (The Great Charter) Guaranteed rights and liberties to the English people that could not be cancelled by later laws Common Law-evolved from the Magna Carta; unwritten laws based on customs, usage and precedents

49 1.2 Self-Government and the Colonies
Enlightenment (1600s) Thomas Hobbes ( ) All people are born with certain rights Protect one’s own life  lead to chaos Strong government is needed Abuses by government = price of maintaining peace and order

50 The Second Treatise of Civil Government
1. What is Locke’s argument? 2. What evidence does he give to support it? 3. Do you agree or disagree with his point about preserving mankind? Why?

51 1.2 Self-Government and the Colonies
John Locke ( ) Two Treatises on Government (1690) Natural rights: life, liberty, property Can’t morally be taken away by government Social contract theory Implied contract between government and citizens People submit themselves to follow the law for the common good and to cultivate civic virtue Government fails= replace government

52 1.2 Self-Government and the Colonies
Montesquieu ( ) Separation of powers Three branches of government Checks and balances Voltaire ( ) Free speech, freedom of expression and freedom of religion Jean Jacque Rousseau ( ) equality

53 1.2 Self-Government and the Colonies
American Colonies House of Burgesses (1619) First elected body in New World Citizens should have a voice Created laws for the colony of Jamestown Mayflower Compact (1620) Document drafted by settlers Created an elected legislature Government received power from the people of the colony Demonstrates desire to be ruled by local government instead of England

54 1.2 Self-Government and the Colonies
Town meetings Representative government Local citizens met to discuss and vote on issues Belief in democratic ideals Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639) Written body of laws for the colony Government’s power came only from the “free consent of the people” Set limits on what government could do

55 1.2 Self-Government and the Colonies
First Continental Congress (1774) Gathering of colonial leaders Respond to laws passed by Parliament “not represented in Parliament” and violations of “natural rights” Second Continental Congress (1775) Meeting of colonial leaders Response to the Kings failure to act throw off British rule

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