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Learning Theories and Integration Models

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Presentation on theme: "Learning Theories and Integration Models"— Presentation transcript:

1 Learning Theories and Integration Models
Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching

2 Current Educational Goals and Methods
Directed instruction: “ is grounded primarily in behaviorist learning theory and the information processing branch of the cognitive learning theories” (IETIE p55), such as drill and practice, and tutorials. Constructivism: “ evolved from other branches of thinking in cognitive learning theory “ (IETIE p55), such as problem solving, multimedia applications, telecommunications.

3 Differences in Terminology

4 Differences in Terminology

5 Differences in Philosophical Foundations
Constructivists and their opposites come from separate and very different “planets” (Molenda,1991; Philips,1995). “Philosophers believe that knowledge has a separate, real existence of its own outside the human mind”(IETIT p.56).

6 Differences in Philosophical Foundations( cont.)
“Advocates of directed instruction believe that learning happens when knowledge is transmitted to the learner. Constructivist philosophers believe that humans construct all knowledge in their minds, so that learning happens when a learner constructs both mechanisms for learning and his or her own unique version of the knowledge, colored by back and etc”( Willis, 1995).

7 Instructional Needs Met by Two Instructional Models
Needs Addressed by Directed Instruction 1. Individual pacing and remediation, when a teacher’s time is limited. 2. Making learning paths more efficient, especially for instruction in skills that are prerequisite to higher-level skills. 3. Performing time-consuming and labor-intensive tasks, freeing teaching time for other, more complex student needs.

8 Instructional Needs Met by Two Instructional Models (cont.)
4. Supplying the sequence for self-instruction, especially when human teachers are not available, teacher time for structured reviews is limited, and /or students are already highly motivated to learn skills.

9 Instructional Needs Met by Two Instructional Models (cont.)
Needs addressed by Constructivism 1. Making skills more relevant to students’ back ground and experiences by anchoring learning tasks in meaningful, authentic, highly visual situations. 2. Addressing motivation problems through interactive activities in which students must play active rather than passive roles.

10 Instructional Needs Met by Two Instructional Models (cont.)
3. Teaching students how to work together to solve problems through group-based, cooperative learning activities. 4. Emphasizing engaging, motivational activities that require higher-level skills and prerequisite lower-lever skills at the same time.

11 Summary of Characteristics of the Two Instructional Models
Directed instructional models tend to: 1. Focus on teaching sequences of skills that begin with lower-level skills and build to higher-level skills. 2. Clearly state skill objectives with test items matched to them. 3. Stress more individualized work than group work. 4. Emphasize traditional teaching and assessment methods.

12 Summary of Characteristics of the Two Instructional Models(cont.)
Constructivist leaning models tend to: 1. Focus on learning through posing problems, exploring possible answers, and developing products and presentations. 2. Pursue more global goals that specify general abilities such as problem solving and research skills. 3. Stress more group work than individualized work.

13 Summary of Characteristics of the Two Instructional Models(cont.)
4. Emphasize alternative learning and assessment methods: exploration of open-ended questions and scenarios, doing research and developing products; assessment by student portfolios, performance checklists, and tests with open-ended questions; descriptive narratives written by teachers.

14 Learning Theories Associated with Directed Instruction
Behavioral theories. “Behavioral theorists concentrated on immediately observable changes in performance as indicators of learning ” (IETIT p59). Information-processing theories. Focused on the memory and storage processes that make learning possible.

15 Skinner’s Behaviorist Theories of Learning
Stimulus. An event, combination of events, or relationship among events that affect a learner’s perception. Reinforcement. An event that increases the probability of an act that immediately preceded it. Contingencies of reinforcement. Arranging situations for the learner in which reinforcement is made contingent upon a correct response.

16 Skinner’s Behaviorist Theories of Learning (cont.)
Respondents. Reflex actions elicited by a given stimulus. Operants. Responses without any obvious stimulus, which are, therefore, attributed to internal processes in the brain.

17 The Contributions of Behavioral Theories
“Grandfather of Behaviorism,” B.F. Skinner generated much of the experimental data that serves as the basis for behavioral learning theory. Two behavioral principles: 1. Behavior modification techniques in classroom management. 2. Programmed instruction.

18 The Contributions of Information Processing Theories
Emphasis on sensory input, memory, and application. Didn’t agree with the behaviorists’ view that stimulus-response learning alone could form the basis for building higher-level skills. More concerned with the internal processes. “cognitive structures” “advance organizers”

19 Three Tasks to Link Learning Theories
1. Develop & State prerequisite skills 2. Supply instructional conditions 3. Determine the type of learning. “ systematic instructional design” (foundational) or “ systems approaches” (self-contained tutorials).

20 Gagne’s Principles Events of Instruction. 1. Gaining attention
2. Informing the learner of the objective 3. Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning 4. Presenting new material 5. Providing learning guidance 6. Eliciting performance

21 Gagne’s Principles (cont.)
7. Providing feedback about correctness 8. Assessing performance 9. Enhancing retention and recall Types of learning 1. Intellectual skills -- Problem solving --Higher-order rules --Defined concepts

22 Gagne’s Principles (cont.)
--Concrete concepts --Discriminations 2. Cognitive strategies 3. Verbal information 4. Motor skills 5. Attitudes

23 The Information-Processing Theorists
S WM(ST) LT Sensory Register Working (STM) Long Term Register

24 Managing the Complexity of Teaching
“ Gagne specialized in the use of instructional task analysis to identify required sub-skills and conditions of learning for them. Briggs’s expertise was in systematic methods of designing training programs to save companies time and money. Together the two are credited with ISD.

25 Managing the Complexity of Teaching (cont.)
When they combined these two area of expertise, the result was known as a systems approach to instructional design or systematic instructional design came into use in the 1970 s and 1980s” (IETIT p63).

26 Evaluate and Improve Teaching Plans
Instructional goals and objectives Instructional analysis (task analysis) Tests and measures Instructional strategies Evaluating and revising instruction

27 Directed Methods: Problems
Students cannot solve problems Students find directed instruction unmotivating and irrelevant. Students cannot work cooperatively.

28 Learning Theories Associated with Constructivism
Constructivists strategies attempt to account for and remedy perceived deficiencies in behaviorist and information-processing theories and the teaching methods based on them. Constructivists try to inspire students to see the relevance of what they learn to prevent what the CTGV (1990) call “ inert knowledge” (IETIT p65)

29 The Contributions of Early Cognitive Learning Theories
Dewey Laying the theoretical ground-work for many characteristics of today’s educational system. Progressive Movement in Education Lev Vygotsky “scaffolding” and “ zone of proximal development” twin concept.

30 The Contributions of Early Cognitive Learning Theories(cont.)
Piaget Stages of Cognitive Development in children ranging from sensory motor to formal operations (IETIT p65). Experiences a child has helps it experience, assimilate, and adapt to its environment. Jerome Bruner - intellectual development with intervention (active participation)

31 Lev Vygotsky: Scaffold
Implications for education Vygotsky’s: 1. Education is intended to develop children’s personalities. 2. Develop human potential. 3. Help students master their inner values. 4. Direct and guide the individual activities of students. 5. Link student learning with individual development.

32 Piaget’s Theories Ormrod (1995)summarizes Piaget’s basic assumptions about children’s cognitive development in the following way: 1. Children are active and motivated learners. 2. Their knowledge of the world becomes more integrated and organized over time.

33 Piaget’s Theories (cont.)
3. Children learn through the processes of assimilation and accommodation. 4.Cognitive development depends on interaction with one’s physical and social environment. 5. The processes of equilibration helps to develop increasingly complex levels of thought.

34 Piaget’s Theories (cont.)
6. Cognitive development can occur only after certain genetically controlled neurological changes occur. 7. Cognitive development occurs in four qualitatively different stages. (IETIE p67)

35 Jerome Bruner’s Theories
Enactive stage - initiation of actions Iconic stage - use of imagery Symbolic stage - representations Six indicators or “ benchmarks” that revealed cognitive growth. 1. Responding to situations differently. 2. Internalizing events into a “ storage system.”

36 Jerome Bruner Theories (cont.)
3. Increased capacity for language. 4. Systematic interaction with a tutor. 5. Language as an instrument for ordering the environment. 6. Increasing capacity to deal with multiple demands. “Discovery Learning” is most successful with prerequisite knowledge & structured experiences.

37 Papert’s “microworlds”
“Like Piaget, Papert characterized children as “ builders of their own intellectual structures”, and he asserted that these structures developed in a certain order”(IETIT p68). “Logo offered what he called “mircroworlds,” or self-contained, orderly environments that children could use as “ incubators for knowledge” (IETIT p69).

38 John Seely Brown’s Theories
“Inert knowledge,” a term introduced in 1929 by Whitehead, is a problem which was identified by John Seely Brown. “Cognitive apprenticeships” is a term that refers to a student’s ability to transfer knowledge in meaningful ways.

39 CTGV Stands for “The Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt.”
Anchored instruction or teaching that is “ situated in engaging, problem-rich environments that allow sustained exploration by students and teachers” (IETIT p 70). “ Generative learning”

40 Characteristics of Constructivist Approaches
Problem-oriented activities. Visual formats and mental models. “Rich” environments. Cooperative or collaborative(group) learning. Learning through exploration. Authentic assessment methods.

41 Constructivist Methods
How can one certify skill learning? How much prior knowledge is needed? Can students choose the most effective instruction? Which topics suits Constructivist methods?

42 Constructivist Methods (cont.)
Will skills transfer to practical situations? What objective evidence demonstrates the effects of Constructivist methods?

43 Integration Strategies Based on Directed Models
Integration to remedy identified weaknesses. Integration to promote fluency or automaticity of prerequisite skills. Integration to make learning efficient for highly motivated students. Integration to optimize scarce resources. Integration to remove logistical hurdles.

44 Integration Strategies Based on Constructivist Models
Integration to generate motivational learning. Integration to foster creativity. Integration to facilitate self-analysis and metacognition. Integration to increase transfer of knowledge to problem solving. Integration to foster group cooperation.

45 ----------The End-------

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