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Diseases and Disorders of the Digestive System

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Presentation on theme: "Diseases and Disorders of the Digestive System"— Presentation transcript:

1 Diseases and Disorders of the Digestive System
Appendicitis - an inflammation of the appendix Causes Blockage of appendix with feces Blockage of appendix with tumor Treatments Surgery to remove appendix Antibiotics to prevent infection Signs and symptoms – lack of appetite, pain in and around the navel area or in the abdomen, nausea, slight fever, pain in the right leg, and increased white blood cell content

2 Diseases and Disorders of the Digestive System
Cirrhosis - a long lasting liver disease in which normal liver tissue is replaced with nonfunctional scar tissue Causes - Excessive alcohol consumption Hepatitis C infection Hepatitis B infection Treatment - Liver transplant Lifestyle changes to stop medications or use of alcohol

3 Diseases and Disorders of the Digestive System (cont.)
Colitis - defined as inflammation of the large intestine Causes - caused by viral or bacterial infection or the use of antibiotics. Ulcers in the large intestine, Crohn’s disease, various other diseases, and stress may contribute. Treatments Treating underlying causes Changing antibiotics Fluids Repair of ulcers

4 Diseases and Disorders of the Digestive System (cont.)
Colorectal cancer usually comes from the lining of the rectum or colon. Causes - mostly unknown. Polyps in colon or rectum can become cancerous. Signs Changes in bowel movement Blood in feces Anemia Abdominal pain Weight loss Narrow feces

5 Diseases and Disorders of the Digestive System (cont.)
Crohn’s disease - a common type of inflammatory bowel disease and is an autoimmune disorder that typically affects the end of the small intestine Causes - this is an autoimmune disorder. Treatment Medications to reduce inflammation Antibiotics Surgery to remove affected part of intestine Changes in diet

6 Diseases and Disorders of the Digestive System (cont.)
Diverticulitis - inflammation of diverticuli in the intestine. Diverticuli are abnormal dilations in the intestinal wall Causes – mostly unknown. Lack of fiber in diet and bacterial infection of the diverticuli. Signs Abdominal pain Constipation Diarrhea & nausea Fever Blood in feces High white blood cell count

7 Diseases and Disorders of the Digestive System (cont.)
Gastritis - an inflammation of the stomach lining Causes - bacteria or viruses, some medications, alcohol, spicy foods, excessive eating poisons, and stress. Treatment Cook food properly to kill bacteria/viruses Avoid foods/medications that irritate stomach linings Begin acid reducing medications

8 Diseases and Disorders of the Digestive System (cont.)
Heartburn - called gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) - occurs when stomach acids are pushed into the esophagus Causes – alcohol, some foods, defective esophageal sphincter, pregnancy, obesity, hiatal hernia, and repeated vomiting. Treatment Reducing weight Diet changes Reduce alcohol consumption Medications Not lying down after meal

9 Diseases and Disorders of the Digestive System (cont.)
Hemorrhoids - varicose veins of the rectum or anus Causes – constipation, excessive straining during bowel movements, liver disease, pregnancy, and obesity. Treatment Eating high fiber Stool softeners Medications Surgery

10 Diseases and Disorders of the Digestive System (cont.)
Hepatitis - inflammation of the liver. Causes - bacteria, viruses, parasites, immune disorders, the use of alcohol and drugs, and overdose of acetaminophen. Treatment Avoid drugs and alcohol Prescribed medications

11 Diseases and Disorders of the Digestive System (cont.)
Hiatal hernia - occurs when a portion of the stomach protrudes into the chest through an opening in the diaphragm. Inguinal hernias - occurs when a portion of the large intestine protrudes into the inguinal canal. Oral cancer - usually involves the lips or tongue, but can occur anywhere in the mouth. Pancreatic cancer – 4th leading cause of death in the U.S. Stomach cancer - most common in the upper part of the stomach. Stomach ulcers - occur in the lining of the stomach


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