Presentation on theme: "Enzymes. Engage What happens if the gall bladder is blocked? Can you live without a gall bladder? What do you think would happen to the digestive process."— Presentation transcript:
Engage What happens if the gall bladder is blocked? Can you live without a gall bladder? What do you think would happen to the digestive process if your stomach had a neutral pH? What if your stomach had a basic pH? If you have an abnormal body temperature, what do you think the overall affect to digestion would be?
Explore Exploration 1 A Study of Biochemical Reactions You will observe the activity of an enzyme in two substances, both of which break down hydrogen peroxide. One substance is plant tissue, potato. The other is animal tissue, liver. Both are sources of the enzyme, catalase, an organic compound.
Explain What is an enzyme? A protein that speeds up a chemical reaction without being destroyed. Catalyst
Why do We Need Enzymes? Most chemical reactions in the cell take too long to complete on their own. A catalyst (enzyme) is needed to speed up these reactions.
Enzymes Catalytic proteins: change the rate of reactions w/o being consumed Activation Energy: the E required to break bonds Substrate: enzyme reactant Active site: pocket or groove on enzyme that binds to substrate
How Do Enzymes Work? DO NOT WRITE Enzymes are used by the cell to lower the activation energy needed to start a chemical reaction. This is accomplished by binding to the reactants. They will then twist or bend the material lowering the energy needed to split it.
An Enzyme System Active site - specific for the object it will hold, called the substrate. The enzyme system is the enzyme and substrate combined.
Review of Digestive Enzymes Why do we need enzymes to help us digest out food? –It would take to long without them. They act as a catalyst to speed up the digestive process. What macromolecules to digestive enzymes act upon? –Carbohydrate, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids Can you name three digestive enzymes?
Carbohydrate Digestion Monomers-small molecules that can be linked to make larger molecules Monosaccharide (single sugar) Disaccharide (double sugar) MALTASE, LACTASE, SUCRASE –Enzymes that digest Disaccharides
Fat (Lipid) Digestion Bile from gall bladder emulsifies fat. LIPASE- enzymes that digests lipids
Protein Digestion TRYPSIN and CHYOTRYPSIN – enzymes that break bonds next to specific amino acids Carboxypeptidase – splits off one amino acid at a time. Works on the carboxyl group. Aminopeptidase- works in the opposite direction. ENTEROKINASE-hormone that activates these enzymes.
Elaborate Investigating Digestive Process Science Kit and Boreal www.sciencekit.com www.sciencekit.com In this lab, you will understand the actions of different enzymes in your own body.