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Describing Language Proficiency: PISA-reading literacy, EQF-key competences, and the CEFR Waldemar Martyniuk Language Policy Division Council of Europe.

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Presentation on theme: "Describing Language Proficiency: PISA-reading literacy, EQF-key competences, and the CEFR Waldemar Martyniuk Language Policy Division Council of Europe."— Presentation transcript:

1 Describing Language Proficiency: PISA-reading literacy, EQF-key competences, and the CEFR Waldemar Martyniuk Language Policy Division Council of Europe Strasbourg, France

2 Analysed documents Council of Europe, 2001: Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment OECD, 2003: The PISA 2003 Assessment Framework Commission of the European Communities, 2005: Towards a European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning, SEC(2005) 957

3 Analysed elements Function Aims Approach / parameters / categories of description / descriptors Levels

4 CEFR European language neutral framework of reference for development and assessment of proficiency in FL by adult learners Providing common meta-language and common reference points for plurilingual education (FL) Action-oriented approach; Descriptive Scheme for language use: competences, activities and strategies, tasks and purposes, domains, text types, themes, situations (contexts of use), conditions and constraints 6 (9) Common Reference Levels: global scale, self-assessment scale, 54 scales of illustrative descriptors (qualitative and quantitative can- do statements)

5 PISA International assessment framework for testing mathematical, scientific and reading literacy of young adults at the age of 15 Monitoring outcomes of educational systems; providing basis for collaboration on policy; providing input for standard-setting and evaluation; supporting shift in policy focus from educational inputs to learning outcomes Dimensions of reading literacy: processes, content (knowledge and understanding), context of application 5 levels, 5 subscales, one combined scale; task descriptions (similar to can-do statements)

6 PISA – assessing literacy Human capital (OECD definition): the knowledge, skills, competences and other attributes embodied in individuals that are relevant to personal, social and economic well-being Aim of PISA: to measure how well young adults, at the age of 15 and therefore approaching the end of compulsory schooling, are prepared to meet the challenges of todays knowledge societies Literacy: mastery of processes, understanding of concepts, ability to function in various situations (contexts) Reading literacy: the capacity to understand, use and reflect on written texts, in order to achieve ones goals, to develop ones own knowledge and potential, and to participate in society

7 PISA – Reading literacy Processes (aspects): –Forming a broad understanding –Retrieving information –Developing an interpretation –Reflecting on content of text –Reflecting on form of text Content (knowledge and understanding): –Continuous texts (narrative, expository, descriptive, argumentative/persuasive, injunctive/instructive –Non-continuous texts (charts, graphs, diagrams, maps, forms, advertisements) Context of application (situations) = CEFR domains: –Personal –Educational –Occupational –Public

8 PISA – Reading literacy: levels Mean score: 500 points (2/3 of candidates in PISA 2000 scored ) 5 levels: –Level 1: 335 – 407 points –Level 2: 408 – 480 –Level 3: 481 – 552 –Level 4: 553 – 625 –Level 5: over 625 Level Descriptors, e. g.: Make a simple connection between information in the text and common, everyday knowledge (Level 1, Sub-scale: Reflecting and evaluating) Composite item map, e. g.: Identify the implied starting date of a graph (retrieving information, non-continuous text, score 540)

9 EQF European meta-framework of reference for qualifications as outcomes of lifelong learning Enabling qualifications to be related to each other; facilitating transfer and recognition; increasing transparency and supporting mutual trust; quality assurance Learning outcomes: knowledge, skills, wider competences – personal and professional (autonomy and responsibility, learning competences, communication and social competences); key competences integrated 8 levels, 3 scales

10 EQF-elements Common reference points (levels and scales) Tools and instruments: –Integrated European credit transfer and accumulation system for lifelong learning; –Europass scheme: CV Language Passport Certificate Supplement Diploma Supplement Europass Mobility –Database on learning opportunities (Ploteus portal) Set of common principles and procedures (addressing quality assurance, validation of formal and informal learning, guidance and counselling, and promotion of key competences)

11 EQF-levels and scales 8 levels: –1-2: compulsory education –3: upper secondary or adult education –4: end of upper secondary / post- compulsory education; gateway to HE –5: completion of post-secondary; short cycle within the first cycle of HE –6: HE, first cycle –7: HE, second cycle –8: HE, third cycle 3 scales: –reference levels (ability descriptors) –supporting information (educational context) –indicators of level of qualification (recognition)

12 EQF – Key Competences A framework of reference for competences to be acquired at the end of compulsory schooling but also learned, updated and maintained throughout life – integrated in the EQA at Level 2 Supporting national policies – part of EU Lisbon strategy Education and Training key competences: Communication in mother tongue, Communication in a FL, Mathematical literacy (incl. science and technology), ICT-skills, Learning to learn, Interpersonal and civic competence, Enterpreneurship, Cultural awareness Descriptors: knowledge, skills, attitudes

13 EQF – Key Competences – Communication in MT Definition: ability to express and interprete thoughts, feelings and facts in both oral and written form in the full range of societal contexts, work, home and leisure Knowledge: vocabulary, functional grammar and style, types of literary and non-literary texts, paralinguistic features, types of verbal interaction, functions of language, features of and styles and registers in spoken and written language, awareness of variability in language and communication over time Skills: communicating, reading, writing, searching for and processing information, using aids, formulating arguments Attitudes: positive attitude to the MT, open mind ready to engage in constructive and critical dialogue, strive for aesthetic quality, love of literature, intercultural communication, confidence when speaking in public

14 EQF – Key Competences – Communication in FL Definition: as in MT – in languages other than the MT and the language(s) of instruction at school, according to ones wants and needs; essential elements of communicative competence (reference to CEFR-levels) Knowledge: vocabulary, functional grammar, intonation and pronunciation, types of literary and non-literary texts, paralinguistic features, types of verbal interaction, functions of language, features of and styles and registers in spoken and written language, awareness of societal conventions and cultural aspects and variability of language in different geographical, social and communication environments Skills: listening, speaking, interacting, reading, writing, using aids, autonomous learning Attitudes: sensitivity to cultural differences and resistance to stereotyping, interest in and curiosity about languages, intercultural communication

15 Summary CEFR, EQF: descriptive European meta- frameworks PISA: international assessment framework Competence based: focus on learning outcomes (ability based on knowledge) Common target group: young adults (end of compulsory education) Some differences in the use of terminology (competence, domain, situation, content, context, purpose) Overarching framework structure: –Descriptive scheme –Reference levels and scales –Tools and instruments –Guidelines and procedures –Assessment scheme (with background surveys)

16 Conclusions Need for closer cooperation on European and international level Issues for discussion: –To what extent is competence based approach suitable for LE? –Which elements of the overarching framework structure might be developed for LE? –What other elements might be needed? –How to relate a LE framework to the existing frameworks?


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