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1 Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan
Prof Dr Osman ERGANİŞ Selcuk University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Depatment of Microbiology Konya-Turkey Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

2 Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan
Goat milk marketing in Malta (Nicoletti 2002) Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

3 Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan
This plan is consisted of 15 sections. These are: 1. Introduction 2. Organisational Structure 3. Definition of The Disease 4. Epidemiology of Small Animals Brucellosis 5. Determination of Control and Eradiaction Strategies 6. Selection of The Strategy 7. Implementation of The Strategy 8. Contribution of Regional/National Economy 9. Budget 10. Economic analysis of The plan 11. Management of The plan 12. Monitoring and Evalauation of The plan 13. Recommendation 14. Assumptions and risks 15. References Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

4 Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan
1.1. Aim of the Plan To control and eradication the infection in the sheep and goat population in NC within 5 years. First Selected Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

5 Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan
1.2. Scope of Work To determine of the brucellosis prevalence in sheep and goats population To determine of a control and eradication strategy for the disease based on data obtained from the survey Base on developed strategy implementation of necessary activities in the form of annual programmes to achieve the set targets Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

6 Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan
1.3. Legal Basis EU and Local legislations Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

7 Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan
Project Implementation Area EU, SANCO/10339/2005 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

8 Livestock Population and Farming Structure
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan Livestock Population and Farming Structure The majority of the livestock farms are small family enterprises. Table 1 - Number of Cattle, Sheep and Goat in Northern Cyprus ( ) Years Cattle Sheep Goat 2004x 47,970 194,500 51,266 2005 56,647 239,026 60,780 2006 60,493 234,362 60,245 2007 57,528 236,026 61,425 2008xx 50,928 206,610 57,902 (x): CCA data, (xx):2008 VD data Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

9 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan Table 2 – Distribution of Sheep Population Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

10 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan Table 3 - Distribution of Goat Population Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

11 DESCRIPTION OF THE DISEASE
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan DESCRIPTION OF THE DISEASE Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

12 DESCRIPTION OF THE DISEASE
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan DESCRIPTION OF THE DISEASE Ovine and caprine brucellosis infection is generally caused by Brucella melitensis biotype 1. It is reported that B. melitensis causes infection in cattle population as well because cattle, sheep and goats are handled together as part of the animal husbandry practices in many countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

13 DESCRIPTION OF THE DISEASE
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan DESCRIPTION OF THE DISEASE Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

14 Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan
DESCRIPTION OF THE DISEASE Brucellosis is also endemic in some Mediterranean countries, namely Spain, Italy, Egypt, Portugal, Syria, Turkey, and Greece. Considering the public health risk, among all Brucella ssp, B. melitensis is the most pathogenic for humans and the most commonly isolated from human brucellosis Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

15 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan Epidemiolgical data for Northen Part of Cyprus* Year Tested Positive (%) Sheep Goat Dog 2001 158,725 48,594 279 0.86 2.38 2002 103,867 29,766 0.95 1.54 2003 73,869 20,581 2.47 1.91 2004 74,491 19,811 0.99 2.91 2005 57,109 16,318 16 1.47 1.27 12.5 2006 69,873 16,133 31 1.48 38.7 (*) : VD Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

16 Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan
DESCRIPTION OF THE DISEASE The treatment of brucellosis is strictly prohibited in animal population. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

17 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan CONTROL AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES Where the B.melitensis prevalence (<%2) is low, the most appropriate method for eradication is test and culling. In countries where the prevalence (>%2) is high, Vaccination with Rev. 1 vaccine is the most cost effective way to control and eradicate the disease. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

18 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan CONTROL AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

19 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan CONTROL AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES Vaccination for the control of transmission of the diseases among the susceptible animals. When the disease prevalence comes to a moderate level for the country/regions, the strategy must be towards eradication of the disease through test and culling application. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

20 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan CONTROL AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES Basic principles for a succesfull control and eradiaction plan are as follows: 1-Determining diseases status -Survey studies -Efficient recoding 2- Determining the Eradication Strategy - Vaccination - Movement Control and Quarantine -Test and Slaughtering - Monitoring diseases status - Depopulation infected animal / flock - Animal waste and side product control - Diseases free certified farms - Public awareness campains Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

21 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan CONTROL AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES 2. Identification of Reactors The golden standard for diagnosing animals with active brucellosis is the reproduction of B. melitensis and/or diagnosis with the PCR. As a part of the testing and culling strategy, all animals older than six months old are tested with appropriate serological assays (e.g. RBPT, CFT and c-ELISA). Suspected cases are tested once again in one or two months. Positive animals are culled in no later than one month in registered slaughterhouses. Tissue samples (e.g. lymph nodes) are sent to a microbiology laboratory for bacteriological verification of the serological diagnosis. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

22 CONTROL AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan CONTROL AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES 2. Identification of Reactors and Culling (Cont.) Lambs and goat kids of the reactors are separated from the flock. The flock is tested at regular intervals (30 to 60 days). The testing and culling process is continued until the flock is found negative in the last two consecutive tests. Negative flocks are monitored through serological tests performed initially once in every six months, and then one in every 12 months (surveillance). Approximately 5 per cent of the infected but seronegative lambs may stay seronegative until the later stages of their first pregnancy. Thus, eradication efforts based merely on testing and culling may not be sufficient. First Selected Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

23 CONTROL AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan CONTROL AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES 3. Control of the Animal Movements and Quarantine Quarantine measures should be applied immediately when there is a suspected brucellosis case. The quarantine may be partial or total in large enterprises practicing in various areas, depending on the flock management and prevalence of the infection. Even so, serosurveillance should be performed for different flocks of the same enterprise until infection-free status is achieved. The enterprises should take necessary measures to prevent contact with dogs and even birds that can assist in moving contaminated materials. Strict sanitation and disinfection measures should be applied for isolated animals. Suspected and risky animals should be dispatched for culling. All applications should be performed in compliance with the recommendations of the official veterinary surgeon. Declaration of the prohibition of animal movements by cordoning off will help the eradication efforts. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

24 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan CONTROL AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES 4. Animal Waste and Side Products Control Aborted materials: Aborted foetuses, placenta of the infected animals, and other contaminating materials should be incinerated. These should be packed hygienically in plastics bags to prevent transmission to the personnel and other animals, and destroyed in rendering facilities. Disinfectans: Brucellas are sensitive to formalin of 0.03 %, phenol of 1 %, beta propiolactone of 0.01 %, sodium hypochoride, sodium hydroxide, iodines, disinfectants containing quarterner ammonium, ether and chloroform. Necessary amount of disinfectant should be available in the region. Acut brucellosis: Rapid response should be given to acute brucellosis cases, and disinfection process is performed under the supervision of the official veterinary surgeon. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

25 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 4. CONTROL AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES 4.5. Vaccination Attenuated B. melitensis Rev.1 vaccine is used since whole-killed (‘dead’) vaccines cannot stimulate the cellular immunity and live vaccines are better in preventing ovine and caprine brucellosis. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

26 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan CONTROL AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES 5. Vaccination B. melitensis Rev.1 vaccine Brucella melitensis Rev.1 vaccine is the most widely used vaccine for the prevention of sheep and goats brucellosis Antibodies: Antibodies disappear within four to six months in those animals subcutaneously vaccinated, while a resistance grows against the disease that will last three to five years. Vaccination time: It should be normally given to lambs and kids aged between 3 and 6 months as a single subcutaneous or conjunctival inoculation. Dose: The standard dose is between 0.5 × 109 and 2.0 × 109 Rev. 1 bacteria. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

27 Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan
CONTROL AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES 5. Vaccination B. melitensis Rev.1 vaccine conjuctival vaccination First Selected Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

28 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 4. CONTROL AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES 4.5. Vaccination The subcutaneous vaccination induces strong antibody responses It is possible to separate between vaccinated and infected with c-ELISA. Instead, when this vaccine is administered conjunctively, it produces a similar protection without forming a persistent antibody response. Care must be taken when using Rev.1 vaccine (e.g. masks, gloves, antiseptics) since it is more pathogenic than the other vaccine strains. Rev.1 vaccine may cause abortion when animals are vaccinated during pregnancy. Therefore, adult animals should be vaccinated before mating or during the last month of pregnancy. If a mass vaccination is concerned, it is recommended to use the standard dose of Rev.1 administered conjunctively when the animals are not pregnant or during the lambing season (OIE, 2008). Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

29 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan CONTROL AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES Depopulation of Infected Flocks The most efficient way to eradicate ovine and caprine brucellosis is to quarantine the infected animals (M+) and all susceptible animals with high transmission risk (M1 and M2), and to cull them in a registered slaughterhouse. Disease-free (M3 or M4) enterprises should be created, and certified accordingly (78/52/EEC) Certified flocks will also be protected by biological safety measures. Their disease-free status will be monitored through serological tests to be performed once or twice in a year. Public Awareness and Media Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection The information should be provided via simple announcements, posters, internet pages, radio, TV, contact telephone numbers, forms, etc., Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

30 CONTROL AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan CONTROL AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES 7. Vector Control Although transmission via vectors is not important in the epidemiology of brucellosis, it is possible that cats, dogs, foxes, flies and ticks act as mechanical carriers and transmit the disease First Selected Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

31 CONTROL AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan CONTROL AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES 8. Establishment of Disease-Free Flocks Breeders of healthy flocks should be encouraged through provision of a “Certificate for Disease-Free Status for the Brucellosis” to all brucellosis-free flocks. First Selected Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

32 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan EPIDEMIOLOGY 1-Surveillance Studies There shall be survey studies as well as aetiological and serological surveys in order to identify the status of the disease. Aetiological survey Serological survey Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

33 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan EPIDEMIOLOGY 2. Control of Breeding Rams and Male Goats Breeding rams and male goats will additionally be checked against B. ovis. Rams and male goats with orchitis that are slaughtered. Collect blood sera from rams with orchitis during the slaughterhouse and flock screenings. The serums will be checked with S99 for B. abortus as well as with RBPT antigens for B. ovis. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

34 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan EPIDEMIOLOGY 3. Aetiological Surveillance In recent years, There is no any data of comprehensive surveillance studies in Northen part of Cyprus. But, there are some random passive survey. Test for 100 discharge samples and 100 vaginal secretion samples for the epidemiological surveillance. Bacteriological and PCR Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

35 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan EPIDEMIOLOGY 4. Serosurvey Studies Active serosurveillance will be performed in the seroprevalance studies. Two-phase random sampling (RS) method (10 % estimated prevalance, 95 % confidence interval and 1 % error)will be used for the selection of samples. - First phase: the villages located in five regions will be selected as primary sampling unit, numbered and listed. Then, - Second phase: Animals in each village will be sampled by the systematic random sampling technique. Sampling process will be held in March and April after lambing season. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

36 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan EPIDEMIOLOGY 4. Serosurvey Studies Among the sheep and goat flocks in the selected villages, sampling will be performed from 5.38% of each flock for sheep flocks, and 14.78% of each goat flock in accordance with the flock size. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

37 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan EPIDEMIOLOGY Distribution of villages selected from five regions for sampling Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

38 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 5. EPIDEMIOLOGY Table 11 – Villages Selected from Each Region Nicosai / Lefkoşa Morphou / Güzelyurt Kyrenia / Girne Trikomo / İskele Famagusta / G.Magusa Akıncılar Bostancı Akdeniz Adaçay Aslanköy Alayköy Cengizköy Aşağıdikmen Altınova Beyarmudu Balıkesir Gayretköy Esentepe Ergazi Boğaziçi Değirmenlik Güneşköy Karşıyaka Kumyalı G.Mağusa Düzova Serhatköy Pınarbaşı Topçuköy Güvercinlik Gönyeli Yeşilırmak  Y.Taşkent Yedikonak  Korkuteli Haspolat Yeşilyurt Çatalköy Zeybekköy Mormenekşe Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

39 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 5. EPIDEMIOLOGY Table 12 – Flock survey planinig for sheep population Region All NC Selected To be sampled Sampling % # of villages # of sheep ** Nicosia / Lefkoşa 26 29631 7 16617 894 5.38 Famagusta/G. Mağusa 42 58043 18084 973 Kyrenia / Girne 33 33940 11630 625 5.37 Morphou / Güzelyurt 7505 404 Trikomo / İskele 43 49763 9257 499 5.39 Total 170 206443 35 63093 3395 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

40 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 5. EPIDEMIOLOGY Table 13 – Flock survey planinig for goat population Region All NC Selected To be sampled Sampling % # of villages # of goats ** Nicosia / Lefkoşa 26 10.328 7 5725 846 14.78 Famagusta/G.Mağusa 42 13.237 2980 441 Kyrenia / Girne 33 17.851 9162 1354 Morphou / Güzelyurt 7870 1954 289 Trikomo / İskele 43 8109 2190 324 Total 170 57395 35 22011 3254 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

41 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan EPIDEMIOLOGY 5.2. Sampling Methodology Determination of the sample size and sampling. Data from the Serology Laboratory of the Office of Veterinary has been taken as basis for the prevalence estimate. Prevalence of the population of the study (170 villages, 3,105 flocks, N = 206,443 sheep and N = 57,021 goats in 1,689 flocks) has been assumed 10 per cent. On the basis of this assumption, the calculation for sheep population has been made using the formula with 95 % confidence interval and 1 % error. Number of samples required has been calculated using the formula ‘1/n = 1/n + 1/N’, and found 1/n = 1/3, /206,442 = n = 3,395. Using the same calculations, number of samples required for the goat population has been found 3,254. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

42 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 5. EPIDEMIOLOGY Laboratory Studies Collected blood serum samples will be tested with RBPT. CFT and c-ELISA tests will be applied to those samples that are found positive with RBPT. For microbiological samples, on the other hand, classical (isolation and identification of bacteria) and molecular methods (PCR with various primers) will be used for diagnosis on the basis of species and type. Detailed definition of the tests is given in Section 3. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

43 Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan
6. ALTERNATIVE STARTEGIES (EU (2001) SANCO.C.2/AH/R23/2001) Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

44 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 6. SELECTION OF THE STRATEGY STRATEGY ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Mass Vaccination It decreases human transmission risk. Flock immunisation is ensured in a short time. Disease is controlled in an efficient way, and disease-driven losses decrease. It is easily accepted by the producers. It is easy to organise and cost effective. Flock immunisation can be ensured with vaccination of young animals. It may cause abortion in pregnant animals. It is not possible to separate infected animals from vaccinated animals in the short term. Infected animals stay within the flock for some time more. Vaccination of Young Animals & Testing and Culling of Adult Animals It minimises the abortions caused by vaccination. Serological response of the healthy vaccinated animals helps separation of infected animals from vaccinated animals through testing. Flock immunisation is slow. Serological tests used to separate between vaccinated and infected animals are not optimum. They do not form a basis for accurate diagnosis of the disease in a single animal. Testing and Culling without Vaccination If successful, it results in elimination of the disease in the region. Diagnostic tests are more efficient, yet not optimal for unvaccinated animals. There is a risk for epidemic, followed by human infection. It is very costly. It requires effectively functioning Veterinary Services (animal identification and registry, laboratory support, control of animal movements) It is suitable only for places with low disease prevalence. Removal of the protection caused by vaccination may result in an increase in the prevalence of the disease. It may be necessary to cut all animals in a flock in order to have an effective strategy. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

45 Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE STRATEGY The strategy for the control and eradication of ovine and caprine brucellosis in NC will be implemented on the basis of CA (competetive authority) approved plan in parallel with the following scenarios to be chosen according to the aetiological and serological prevalence studies. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

46 Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE STRATEGY Scenario A Vaccination shall not be performed if the flock prevalence is found below 5 % and individual prevalence is found below 2 %. The eradication efforts shall then include biological safety, disinfection, control and animal movements as well as testing and culling for a duration of five years. A compansation scheme is suggested to be developed by CA. for the culling of infected sheep. Based on a calculation for 5 % flock prevalence and 1.0 % individual prevalence, it is anticipated that around 4,317 sheep and 1,180 goats (total 5,497) shall be culled. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

47 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 7. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE STRATEGY Scenario B If the flock prevalence is found 5 % to 20 % and the individual prevalence is found between 2% and 5%, lambs and goat kids shall be vaccinated conjunctively with Rev. 1 vaccine when they are four to six months old (between June and August) for three years. This scenario targets to achieve a population immunisation of 80 % for the young animals. The vaccination campaign will continue for all lambs and goat kids (females and males) until the disease prevalence decreases down to 1 %. For the purposes of monitoring the vaccination activities, blood serums will be taken in third to fifth weeks after the vaccination, and measured for titration. It is anticipated that the flock owners, who permits vaccination of their animals, will be paid a compensation for their culled animals at a rate to be determined by the MANR (50 % - 75 %). Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

48 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 7. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE STRATEGY Scenario C If the flock prevalence is found higher than 20 % and the individual prevalence is higher than 5 %, all lambs and goat kids and adult sheep and goats shall be vaccinated for five years with Rev. 1 and Adult Rev. 1 since the transmission risk will be high in the country. Lambs and goat kids shall be vaccinated when they are three to six months old, while the adult animals shall be vaccinated 45 days after the birth or latest within one month prior to the ram / male goat addition. With this scenario, it is targeted to achieve a widespread immunisation (75 % and above) for females. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

49 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 7. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE STRATEGY Work Plan Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

50 Work Plan

51 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 8. CONTRIBUTION TO REGIONAL/ NATIONAL ECONOMY Assuming 5 % flock prevalence and 1.0 % individual prevalence, ovine and caprine brucellosis causes a total of TL 3,195,480 financial loss in one year, calculated as below on the basis of basic financial losses (culling of infected sheep and goats, compensation for aborted foetuses, and destruction of milk in positive flocks). It is estimated that the annual loss will be TL 22,427,338 adding chances of sales / exportation of brood animals to the neighbouring countries in case of disease-free status (meaning an increase in the value of animals). Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

52 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 8. CONTRIBUTION TO REGIONAL/ NATIONAL ECONOMY Calculation Model Assumptions: Average individual prevalence for cattle, sheep and goats in NC is 1 per cent. Each animal with abortus infects five healthy animals. Average milk production is 150 litres per year for sheep and goats. Economic loss caused by abortus is TL 100 for sheep and goats. Milk price is TL 1.5 / litre for sheep and goat milk. Butchery value of normal (reactor / infected) animal is (TL … per animal): TL 350 per breeding sheep / goat TL 200 per butchery lamb With the assumption of 5 % flock prevalence: 3,105 dairy sheep flock – 190,229 sheep – flock average 61.3 1,689 dairy goat flock – 51,989 goats – flock average 30.8 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

53 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 8. CONTRIBUTION TO REGIONAL/ NATIONAL ECONOMY Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

54 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 8. CONTRIBUTION TO REGIONAL/ NATIONAL ECONOMY Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

55 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 8. CONTRIBUTION TO REGIONAL/ NATIONAL ECONOMY Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

56 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 8. CONTRIBUTION TO REGIONAL/ NATIONAL ECONOMY Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

57 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 8. CONTRIBUTION TO REGIONAL/ NATIONAL ECONOMY Total amount of gains will be TL 22,427,338 when sheep and goat breeding sectors. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

58 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 8. CONTRIBUTION TO REGIONAL/ NATIONAL ECONOMY Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

59 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 8. CONTRIBUTION TO REGIONAL/ NATIONAL ECONOMY Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

60 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 8. CONTRIBUTION TO REGIONAL/ NATIONAL ECONOMY Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

61 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 9. BUDGET Cost of Epidemiological Prevalence Study 1. Serological Prevalence A total of 6,649 blood serum samples shall be collected from the sheep and goats for the purposes of serosurveillance study. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

62 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 9. BUDGET Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

63 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan ESTIMATED COSTS Plan A = TL Plan B = TL 7,735,588 Plan C= TL 14,420,079 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

64 Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan
10. COST / BENEFITS OF THE PLANS When Plan A is implemented, Estimated cost is TL (within five years for serological surveillance, compensations and fixed costs). Estimated loose when Plan A is not implemented is; TL 22,427,338. Cost / Benefit Ratio: TL 22,427,338 / = 3.92) = ~ 1:4 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

65 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 10. AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE PLANS When Plan B is implemented, it is anticipated to spend a total of TL 7,735,588 within five years for serological surveillance, compensations and fixed costs. Based on Plan B, the annual loss caused by the disease is estimated as TL 25,717,860. These losses will turn into gains when disease-free status is achieved. Benefit / cost analysis shows that this five-year cost will return 3.32 times more benefits within one year (TL 25,717,860 / 7,735,588 = 3,32 = ~ 1:3,3 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

66 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 10. AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE PLANS When Plan C is implemented, it is anticipated to spend a total of TL 14,408,079 within five years for serological surveillance, compensations and fixed costs. Based on Plan C, the annual loss caused by the disease is estimated as TL 33,697,965. These losses will turn into gains when disease-free status is achieved. Benefit / cost analysis shows that this five-year cost will return 2.34 times more benefits within one year (TL 33,697,965 / 14,408,079 = 2.34).= ~ 1:2,3 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

67 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 11. MANAGEMENT OF THE PLAN The control and eradication plan should be managed by a technically and scientifically competent “Ovine and Caprine Brucellosis Plan Implementation Committee” (PIC). The Committee, under the secretariat of the OoV, should comprise of ovine and caprine brucellosis epidemiology, microbiology and serology experts as well as one representative from the central organisation of the Ministries of Health and Agriculture in terms of efficiency of the legal actions. The committee should meet frequently to review the progress of the project, to identify deficiencies and problems, to develop solutions for these problems, and to make decisions and act as fast as possible. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

68 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 12. MONITORING AND EVALUATION OF THE PLAN Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

69 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 13. RECOMMENDATIONS 13.1. Training 13.2. Equipment 13.3. Legislation and Implementation Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

70 Zoonotic Diseases Symposium 30-31 May 2011 Lefkoşa
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan 14. ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS 14.1. Assumptions Human Resources The existing personnel should be supported through service procurement from freelance veterinaries because all 632 enterprises in seven districts of NC will be visited at least twice a year for the purposes of the project. Culling / Slaughtering The necessary legal and technical infrastructure should be established for culling a high number of animals in appropriate facilities as a result of the intensive screening. Milk Produced by Suspected Animals There should be necessary legal infrastructure and private sector collaboration to collect the milk from animals in suspected flocks using appropriate methods, and to market after treating with heat. Sufficient and Continuous Financial Resources Sufficient financial resources should be allocated during the implementation of the plan in order to ensure continuous and active participation by the farmers and to obtain efficient outcomes. Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

71 Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan
14. ASSUMPTIONS AND RISKS 14.2. Risks Human Resources Unless the eradication plan is implemented by qualified and properly trained personnel in sufficient numbers, there may be delays in implementation as well as difficulties in control processes. Culling and Slaughtering If the LVS cannot have the infected animals slaughtered on time due to the lack of slaughterhouses controlled by official public veterinaries, the eradication will delay Failure to Apply Heat Treatment to Suspected Milk Usage of any milk produced in dairies with a brucellosis risk without being applied heat treatment means continuation of infection risk both for human beings and for animals. Funding Regular funding is critical for efficient implementation and successful completion of the plan. Particularly, compensations to the farmers should be paid in a timely manner. First Selected Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa

72 So many thanks for your attentions and patience
Small Ruminant Brucellosis in the northern part of Cyprus, Control and Eradication Plan So many thanks for your attentions and patience First Selected Zoonotic Diseases Symposium May Lefkoşa


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