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Acidi e Basi HCl → H+ + Cl - NaOH(s) → Na+(aq) + OH -(aq)H2SO4 → 2 H+ + SO42- H3PO4 → 3 H+ + PO43- Ca(OH)2(s) → Ca2+(aq) + 2 OH -(aq) NH3 + H2O → NH4+ + OH -
Acidi (e basi) forti e deboliHCl → H+ + Cl - HNO3 → H+ + NO3- CH3COOH ⇆ H+ + CH3COO - NH3 + H2O ⇆ NH4+ + OH - HF ⇆ H+ + F-
Acidi poliprotici H2SO4 → 2 H+ + SO42- H2SO4 → H+ + HSO4-H3PO4 ⇆ 3 H+ + PO43- H3PO4 ⇆ H+ + H2PO4- H2PO4- ⇆ H+ + HPO42- HPO42- ⇆ H+ + PO43-
H+ + Cl - + Na+ + OH - → Na+ + Cl - + H2OAcido + Base = Sale HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2O H+ + Cl - + Na+ + OH - → Na+ + Cl - + H2O H+ + OH - → H2O H2SO4 + 2 NaOH → Na2SO4 + 2 H2O
Formule dei sali Na+ Cl - NaCl cloruro di sodioNa+ SO42- Na2SO4 solfato di sodio K+ PO43- K3PO4 fosfato di potassio Ca2+ Cl - CaCl2 cloruro di calcio Mg2+ PO43- Mg3(PO4)2 fosfato di magnesio K+ HSO4- KHSO4 idrogenosolfato di potassio Na+ H2PO4- NaH2PO4 diidrogenofosfato di sodio Na+ HPO42- Na2HPO4 monoidrogenofosfato di sodio
Reazioni acido-base bilanciateHNO3 + KOH → KNO3 + H2O H2SO4 + 2 NaOH → Na2SO4 + 2 H2O H2SO4 + NaOH → NaHSO4 + H2O H3PO4 + 2 NaOH → Na2HPO4 + 2 H2O H2SO4 + Mg(OH)2 → MgSO4 + 2 H2O 2 HCl + Ba(OH)2 → BaCl2 + 2 H2O 3 Ca(OH)2 + 2 H3PO4 → Ca3(PO4)2 + 6 H2O
Ammoniaca come base NH3 + H2O ⇆ NH4+ + OH - HCl + NH3 → NH4ClH2SO4 + 2 NH3 → (NH4)2SO4
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