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Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS 2011 - San Francisco, USA - September 12 -14 DEVELOPMENT OF AN ITALIAN.

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Presentation on theme: "Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS 2011 - San Francisco, USA - September 12 -14 DEVELOPMENT OF AN ITALIAN."— Presentation transcript:

1 Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS San Francisco, USA - September DEVELOPMENT OF AN ITALIAN FIRE PREVENTION TECHNICAL RULE FOR HYDROGEN PIPELINES N. Mattei, M. Carcassi., N. Ciannelli, F. Pilo Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleare e della Produzione (DIMNP), University of Pisa Università di Pisa

2 Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS San Francisco, USA - September SUMMARY Italian regulation about hydrogen and methane Italian development of regulation Italian Working Group on Hydrogen Experimental facility and tests Data acquired and data elaboration Procedure followed to define safety distance Conclusions

3 Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS San Francisco, USA - September REGULATION IN FORCE IN ITALY Right now no law or technical rule is available to install a pipeline for hydrogen Rules referring to natural gas and and gas with 0.8 [kg/m 3 ] must be followed: D.M 16 aprile 2008 (distribution) D.M. 17 aprile 2008 (transport) Moreover European laws already cover many aspects involved in design, building and safety issues, e.g. DIRECTIVE 97/23/EC (PED).

4 Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS San Francisco, USA - September Italian Methodology CCTS Ministry of Interior Italian Working Group on Fire Prevention Hydrogen Methane FIRE PREVENTION TECHNICAL RULE FOR HYDROGEN PIPELINES D.M 16 aprile 2008 (distribution) D.M. 17 aprile 2008 (transport ) Experimenthal activity REGULATION

5 Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS San Francisco, USA - September METHANE SAFETY DISTANCES Gauge Pressure inside pipe [MPa] 1° Type 2.4 < P 6 2° Type 1.2 < P 2.4 3° Type 0.5 < P 1.2 CategoriesABDABDABD Pipe Diameter [mm]Safety Distance [m] >

6 Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS San Francisco, USA - September EXPERIMETAL TESTS The Group has decided to support its work with an experimental activity, by means of a pilot plant named H.P.B.T. (Hydrogen Pipe Break Test) at University of Pisa. The plant has been used to: simulate hydrogen release its ignition and development of combustion. Data have been acquired about: the diffusivity of the gas the dimension of release jet the dimension of jet-fire as function of internal pressure and release hole diameter. to validate the calculation models

7 Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS San Francisco, USA - September HPBT LAYOUT

8 Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS San Francisco, USA - September PARAMETERS OF EXPERIMENTAL TESTS According to the draft, pipelines are categorized as function of internal pressure and diameter. The incidental scenario is defined by: Internal pressure (test pressure: up to 10 bar) release hole diameter/area (2.5 / 5; 5 / 20 and 11 / 95 mm / mm 2 ) Hole diameter and internal pressure have been chosen in order to have a steady jet so that it was possible to measure it

9 Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS San Francisco, USA - September PARAMETERS OF EXPERIMENTAL TESTS Release hole dimension has been chosen as a percentage of pipe diameter following the Italian Guide to ATEX [Norma CEI EN (CEI 31 – 35)] referred to release in open air: hole area should not be less that 2.5 mm 2 for flanges and valves (DN150 or more) Doubling the area to be conservative, a value of 2.5 mm for diameter is reasonably referred to a DN100 pipe

10 Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS San Francisco, USA - September DISPLACEMENT OF 9 SAMPLE POINTS x [mm] y [mm] z [mm] X X X X X X X X X HPBT-JR-8 x [mm] y [mm] z [mm] X X X X X X X X X12 HPBT-JR-19HPBT-JR-8

11 Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS San Francisco, USA - September SUMMARY OF DATA AVAILABLE FOR EACH TEST angle between wind direction and jet axis wind velocity spatial coordinates of sample points H2 concentration vs. time

12 Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS San Francisco, USA - September Start of release Temperature [°C] inside tanks Temperature [°C] next to release hole Pressure [barg] inside tanks Oxygen Concentration [%vol] EXAMPLE OF DATA ACQUIRED (Ø 2,5mm and P = 10bar)

13 Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS San Francisco, USA - September DATA ACQUIRED wind veolcity

14 Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS San Francisco, USA - September m 2m JET-FIRE (only camera data)

15 Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS San Francisco, USA - September JET-FIRE DIMENSION 4 m 0,7 m Lateral viewFront view Ø 11 mm - P 10 bar

16 Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS San Francisco, USA - September JET FIRE DATA ACQUIRED Flame length [m] Internal Pressure [bar] Ø = 2.5 mm Ø = 11 mm

17 Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS San Francisco, USA - September CODE SIMULATION - EFFECTS 7.6

18 Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS San Francisco, USA - September CODE SIMULATION - FLACS v9.0 (CFD)

19 Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS San Francisco, USA - September COMPARISON BETWEEN EXPERIMETAL DATA AND COMPUTER SIMULATION CENTRAL AXYS [m]

20 Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS San Francisco, USA - September RADIATIVE ENERGY PRODUCED BY A JET-FIRE vs. DISTANCE FROM RELEASE HOLE [m] kW/m 2 [m]

21 Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS San Francisco, USA - September Hydrogen and methane radiative power due to equal hole and pressure [m] [kW/m 2 ] 5,46,8 methane hydrogen HEAT RADIATION (EFFECT)

22 Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS San Francisco, USA - September critic flow mass flow COMPARISON BETWEEN H 2 AND CH 4 FLOW energy flow same area same T and P

23 Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS San Francisco, USA - September PROCEDURE FOLLOWED TO DEFINE SAFETY DISTANCE 1.Pipes are categorized as a function of pressure and pipe diameter. 2.A release hole diameter is associated to pipe diameter (Ø hole = 2.5% of pipe diameter). 3.The resulting jet fire allows to evaluate the distance beyond which radiative power is lower than a defined value (3 kW/m 2 according to Italian laws). (1) (1) D.M. 29 Maggio 2001: following the law, a person can be exposed to such a radiation undergoing to no more that reversible injuries

24 Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS San Francisco, USA - September Gauge Pressure allowed inside pipe [MPa] 1° Type 2.4 < P 6 2° Type 1.2 < P 2.4 3° Type 0.5 < P 1.2 CategoriesEEE Pipe Diameter [mm]Safety Distance [m] > PROPOSED SAFETY DISTANCES

25 Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS San Francisco, USA - September THANK YOU. Contact Author: Nicola Mattei (UNIPI-ITALY) Presented by: Marco Carcassi (UNIPI-ITALY)

26 Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS San Francisco, USA - September LIFT-OFF DELLA FIAMMA Punto di rilascio b b

27 Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS San Francisco, USA - September SIMULAZIONI MEDIANTE IL MODELLO EFFECT In queste simulazioni si è trovata una stima delle lunghezze di fiamma e delle distanze di sicurezza in funzione della soglia di riferimento di radiazione termica. Come valore di soglia di riferimento è stato preso il valore di 12,5 kW/m2 Rif.: D. M. 9 maggio 2001 (Tab. 2 – Valori di soglia) per un incendio (radiazione termica stazionaria) il valore di soglia è 12,5 kW/m 2 cui corrispondono danni alle strutture / effetti domino ed elevata letalità. Inoltre il documento NASA Safety standards for hydrogen and hydrogen sistems riporta (Table A2.5) il valore 12.6 kW/m 2 come valore minimo necessario ad incendiare il legno e a poter creare danni a manufatti di acciaio molto sottile.

28 Development of an Italian Fire Prevention Technical Rule for Hydrogen Pipelines ICHS San Francisco, USA - September RISULTATI DELLE SIMULAZIONI (EFFECT) Raffronto tra le lunghezze del getto dellidrogeno e del metano a parità di condizioni di rilascio metri Idrogeno getto orizzontale metano Idrogeno getto verticale


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